systemd Changelog

New in version 218

December 11th, 2014
  • When querying unit file enablement status (for example via "systemctl is-enabled"), a new state "indirect" is now known which indicates that a unit might not be enabled itself, but another unit listed in its Alias= setting might be.
  • Similar to the various existing ConditionXYZ= settings for units there are now matching AssertXYZ= settings. While failing conditions cause a unit to be skipped, but its job to succeed, failing assertions declared like this will cause a unit start operation and its job to fail.
  • hostnamed now knows a new chassis type "embedded".
  • systemctl gained a new "edit" command. When used on a unit file this allows extending unit files with .d/ drop-in configuration snippets or editing the full file (after copying it from /usr/lib to /etc). This will invoke the user's editor (as configured with $EDITOR), and reload the modified configuration after editing.
  • "systemctl status" now shows the suggested enablement state for a unit, as declared in the (usually vendor-supplied) system preset files.
  • nss-myhostname will now resolve the single-label host name "gateway" to the locally configured default IP routing gateways, ordered by their metrics. This assigns a stable name to the used gateways, regardless which ones are currently configured. Note that the name will only be resolved after all other name sources (if nss-myhostname is configured properly) and should hence not negatively impact systems that use the single-label host name "gateway" in other contexts.
  • systemd-inhibit now allows filtering by mode when listing inhibitors.
  • Scope and service units gained a new "Delegate" boolean property, which when set allows processes running inside the unit to further partition resources. This is primarily useful for systemd user instances as well as container managers.
  • journald will now pick up audit messages directly from the kernel, and log them like any other log message. The audit fields are split up and fully indexed. This means that journalctl in many ways is now a (nicer!) alternative to ausearch, the traditional audit client. Note that this implements only a minimal audit client, if you want the special audit modes like reboot-on-log-overflow, please use the traditional auditd instead, which can be used in parallel to journald.
  • The ConditionSecurity= unit file option now understands the special string "audit" to check whether auditing is available.
  • journalctl gained two new commands --vacuum-size= and --vacuum-time= to delete old journal files until the remaining ones take up no more the specified size on disk, or are not older than the specified time.
  • A new, native PPPoE library has been added to sd-network, systemd's library of light-weight networking protocols. This library will be used in a future version of networkd to enable PPPoE communication without an external pppd daemon.
  • The busctl tool now understands a new "capture" verb that works similar to "monitor", but writes a packet capture trace to STDOUT that can be redirected to a file which is compatible with libcap's capture file format. This can then be loaded in Wireshark and similar tools to inspect bus communication.
  • The busctl tool now understands a new "tree" verb that shows the object trees of a specific service on the bus, or of all services.
  • The busctl tool now understands a new "introspect" verb that shows all interfaces and members of objects on the bus, including their signature and values. This is particularly useful to get more information about bus objects shown by the new "busctl tree" command.
  • The busctl tool now understands new verbs "call", "set-property" and "get-property" for invoking bus method calls, setting and getting bus object properties in a friendly way.
  • busctl gained a new --augment-creds= argument that controls whether the tool shall augment credential information it gets from the bus with data from /proc, in a possibly race-ful way.
  • nspawn's --link-journal= switch gained two new values "try-guest" and "try-host" that work like "guest" and "host", but do not fail if the host has no persistent journalling enabled. -j is now equivalent to --link-journal=try-guest.
  • macvlan network devices created by nspawn will now have stable MAC addresses.
  • A new SmackProcessLabel= unit setting has been added, which controls the SMACK security label processes forked off by the respective unit shall use.
  • If compiled with --enable-xkbcommon, systemd-localed will verify x11 keymap settings by compiling the given keymap. It will spew out warnings if the compilation fails. This requires libxkbcommon to be installed.
  • When a coredump is collected a larger number of metadata fields is now collected and included in the journal records created for it. More specifically control group membership, environment variables, memory maps, working directory, chroot directory, /proc/$PID/status, and a list of open file descriptors is now stored in the log entry.
  • The udev hwdb now contains DPI information for mice. For details see: http://who-t.blogspot.de/2014/12/building-a-dpi-database-for-mice.html
  • All systemd programs that read standalone configuration files in /etc now also support a corresponding series of .conf.d configuration directories in /etc/, /run/, /usr/local/lib/, /usr/lib/, and (if configured with --enable-split-usr) /lib/. In particular, the following configuration files now have corresponding configuration directories: system.conf user.conf, logind.conf, journald.conf, sleep.conf, bootchart.conf, coredump.conf, resolved.conf, timesyncd.conf, journal-remote.conf, and journal-upload.conf. Note that distributions should use the configuration directories in /usr/lib/; the directories in /etc/ are reserved for the system administrator.
  • systemd-rfkill will no longer take the rfkill device name into account when storing rfkill state on disk, as the name might be dynamically assigned and not stable. Instead, the ID_PATH udev variable combined with the rfkill type (wlan, bluetooth, ...) is used.
  • A new service systemd-machine-id-commit.service has been added. When used on systems where /etc is read-only during boot, and /etc/machine-id is not initialized (but an empty file), this service will copy the temporary machine ID created as replacement into /etc after the system is fully booted up. This is useful for systems that are freshly installed with a non-initialized machine ID, but should get a fixed machine ID for subsequent boots.
  • networkd's .netdev files now provide a large set of configuration parameters for VXLAN devices. Similar, the bridge port cost parameter is now configurable in .network files. There's also new support for configuring IP source routing. networkd .link files gained support for a new OriginalName= match that is useful to match against the original interface name the kernel assigned. .network files may include MTU= and MACAddress= fields for altering the MTU and MAC address while being connected to a specific network interface.
  • The LUKS logic gained supported for configuring UUID-specific key files. There's also new support for naming LUKS device from the kernel command line, using the new luks.name= argument.
  • Timer units may now be transiently created via the bus API (this was previously already available for scope and service units). In addition it is now possible to create multiple transient units at the same time with a single bus call. The "systemd-run" tool has been updated to make use of this for running commands on a specified time, in at(1)-style.
  • tmpfiles gained support for "t" lines, for assigning extended attributes to files. Among other uses this may be used to assign SMACK labels to files.

New in version 217 (October 28th, 2014)

  • journalctl gained the new options -t/--identifier= to match on the syslog identifier (aka "tag"), as well as --utc to show log timestamps in the UTC timezone. journalctl now also accepts -n/--lines=all to disable line capping in a pager.
  • Services can notify the manager before they start a reload (by sending RELOADING=1) or shutdown (by sending STOPPING=1). This allows the manager to track and show the internal state of daemons and closes a race condition when the process is still running but has closed its D-Bus connection.
  • Services with Type=oneshot do not have to have any ExecStart commands anymore.
  • User units are now loaded also from $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR/systemd/user/. This is similar to the /run/systemd/user directory that was already previously supported, but is under the control of the user.
  • Job timeouts (i.e. time-outs on the time a job that is queued stays in the run queue) can now optionally result in immediate reboot or power-off actions (JobTimeoutAction= and JobTimeoutRebootArgument=). This is useful on ".target" units, to limit the maximum time a target remains undispatched in the run queue, and to trigger an emergency operation in such a case. This is now used by default to turn off the system if boot-up (as defined by everything in basic.target) hangs and does not complete for at least 15min. Also, if power-off or reboot hang for at least 30min an immediate power-off/reboot operation is triggered. This functionality is particularly useful to increase reliability on embedded devices, but also on laptops which might accidentally get powered on when carried in a backpack and whose boot stays stuck in a hard disk encryption passphrase question.
  • systemd-logind can be configured to also handle lid switch events even when the machine is docked or multiple displays are attached (HandleLidSwitchDocked= option).
  • A helper binary and a service have been added which can be used to resume from hibernation in the initramfs. A generator will parse the resume= option on the kernel command-line to trigger resume.
  • A user console daemon systemd-consoled has been added. Currently, it is a preview, and will so far open a single terminal on each session of the user marked as Desktop=systemd-console.
  • Route metrics can be specified for DHCP routes added by systemd-networkd.
  • The SELinux context of socket-activated services can be set from the information provided by the networking stack (SELinuxContextFromNet= option).
  • Userspace firmware loading support has been removed and the minimum supported kernel version is thus bumped to 3.7.
  • Timeout for udev workers has been increased from 1 to 3 minutes, but a warning will be printed after 1 minute to help diagnose kernel modules that take a long time to load.
  • Udev rules can now remove tags on devices with TAG-="foobar".
  • systemd's readahead implementation has been removed. In many circumstances it didn't give expected benefits even for rotational disk drives and was becoming less relevant in the age of SSDs. As none of the developers has been using rotating media anymore, and nobody stepped up to actively maintain this component of systemd it has now been removed.
  • Swap units can use Discard= to specify discard options. Discard options specified for swaps in /etc/fstab are now respected.
  • Docker containers are now detected as a separate type of virtualization.
  • The Password Agent protocol gained support for queries where the user input is shown, useful e.g. for user names. systemd-ask-password gained a new --echo option to turn that on.
  • The default sysctl.d/ snippets will now set: net.core.default_qdisc = fq_codel This selects Fair Queuing Controlled Delay as the default queuing discipline for network interfaces. fq_codel helps fight the network bufferbloat problem. It is believed to be a good default with no tuning required for most workloads. Downstream distributions may override this choice. On 10Gbit servers that do not do forwarding, "fq" may perform better. Systems without a good clocksource should use "pfifo_fast".
  • If kdbus is enabled during build a new option BusPolicy= is available for service units, that allows locking all service processes into a stricter bus policy, in order to limit access to various bus services, or even hide most of them from the service's view entirely.
  • networkctl will now show the .network and .link file networkd has applied to a specific interface.
  • sd-login gained a new API call sd_session_get_desktop() to query which desktop environment has been selected for a session.
  • UNIX utmp support is now compile-time optional to support legacy-free systems.
  • systemctl gained two new commands "add-wants" and "add-requires" for pulling in units from specific targets easily.
  • If the word "rescue" is specified on the kernel command line the system will now boot into rescue mode (aka rescue.target), which was previously available only by specifying "1" or "systemd.unit=rescue.target" on the kernel command line. This new kernel command line option nicely mirrors the already existing "emergency" kernel command line option.
  • New kernel command line options mount.usr=, mount.usrflags=, mount.usrfstype= have been added that match root=, rootflags=, rootfstype= but allow mounting a specific file system to /usr.
  • The $NOTIFY_SOCKET is now also passed to control processes of services, not only the main process.
  • This version reenables support for fsck's -l switch. This means at least version v2.25 of util-linux is required for operation, otherwise dead-locks on device nodes may occur. Again: you need to update util-linux to at least v2.25 when updating systemd to v217.
  • The "multi-seat-x" tool has been removed from systemd, as its functionality has been integrated into X servers 1.16, and the tool is hence redundant. It is recommended to update display managers invoking this tool to simply invoke X directly from now on, again.
  • Support for the new ALLOW_INTERACTIVE_AUTHORIZATION D-Bus message flag has been added for all of systemd's PolicyKit authenticated method calls has been added. In particular this now allows optional interactive authorization via PolicyKit for many of PID1's privileged operations such as unit file enabling and disabling.
  • "udevadm hwdb --update" learnt a new switch "--usr" for placing the rebuilt hardware database in /usr instead of /etc. When used only hardware database entries stored in /usr will be used, and any user database entries in /etc are ignored. This functionality is useful for vendors to ship a pre-built database on systems where local configuration is unnecessary or unlikely.
  • Calendar time specifications in .timer units now also understand the strings "semi-annually", "quarterly" and "minutely" as shortcuts (in addition to the preexisting "anually", "hourly", ...).
  • systemd-tmpfiles will now correctly create files in /dev at boot which are marked for creation only at boot. It is recommended to always create static device nodes with 'c!' and 'b!', so that they are created only at boot and not overwritten at runtime.
  • When the watchdog logic is used for a service (WatchdogSec=) and the watchdog timeout is hit the service will now be terminated with SIGABRT (instead of just SIGTERM), in order to make sure a proper coredump and backtrace is generated. This ensures that hanging services will result in similar coredump/backtrace behaviour as services that hit a segmentation fault.

New in version 216 (August 20th, 2014)

  • timedated no longer reads NTP implementation unit names from /usr/lib/systemd/ntp-units.d/*.list. Alternative NTP implementations should add a Conflicts=systemd-timesyncd.service to their unit files to take over and replace systemd's NTP default functionality.
  • systemd-sysusers gained a new line type "r" for configuring which UID/GID ranges to allocate system users/groups from. Lines of type "u" may now add an additional column that specifies the home directory for the system user to be created. Also, systemd-sysusers may now optionally read user information from STDIN instead of a file. This is useful for invoking it from RPM preinst scriptlets that need to create users before the first RPM file is installed since these files might need to be owned by them. A new %sysusers_create_inline RPM macro has been introduced to do just that. systemd-sysusers now updates the shadow files as well as the user/group databases, which should enhance compatibility with certain tools like grpck.
  • A number of bus APIs of PID 1 now optionally consult PolicyKit to permit access for otherwise unprivileged clients under certain conditions. Note that this currently doesn't support interactive authentication yet, but this is expected to be added eventually, too.
  • /etc/machine-info now has new fields for configuring the deployment environment of the machine, as well as the location of the machine. hostnamectl has been updated with new command to update these fields.
  • systemd-timesyncd has been updated to automatically acquire NTP server information from systemd-networkd, which might have been discovered via DHCP.
  • systemd-resolved now includes a caching DNS stub resolver and a complete LLMNR name resolution implementation. A new NSS module "nss-resolve" has been added which make be used of glibc's own "nss-dns" to resolve hostnames via systemd-resolved. Hostnames, addresses and arbitrary RRs may be resolved via systemd-resolved D-Bus APIs. In contrast to the glibc internal resolver systemd-resolved is aware of multi-homed system, and keeps DNS server and caches separate and per-interface. Queries are sent simultaneously on all interfaces that have DNS servers configured, in order to properly handle VPNs and local LANs which might resolve separate sets of domain names. systemd-resolved may acquire DNS server information from systemd-networkd automatically, which in turn might have discovered them via DHCP. A tool "systemd-resolve-host" has been added that may be used to query the DNS logic in resolved. systemd-resolved implements IDNA and automatically uses IDNA or UTF-8 encoding depending on whether classic DNS or LLMNR is used as transport. In the next releases we intend to add a DNSSEC and mDNS/DNS-SD implementation to systemd-resolved.
  • A new NSS module nss-mymachines has been added, that automatically resolves the names of all local registered containers to their respective IP addresses.
  • A new client tool "networkctl" for systemd-networkd has been added. It currently is entirely passive and will query networking configuration from udev, rtnetlink and networkd, and present it to the user in a very friendly way. Eventually, we hope to extend it to become a full control utility for networkd.
  • .socket units gained a new DeferAcceptSec= setting that controls the kernels' TCP_DEFER_ACCEPT sockopt for TCP. Similar, support for controlling TCP keep-alive settings has been added (KeepAliveTimeSec=, KeepAliveIntervalSec=, KeepAliveProbes=). Also, support for turning off Nagle's algorithm on TCP has been added (NoDelay=).
  • logind learned a new session type "web", for use in projects like Cockpit which register web clients as PAM sessions.
  • timer units with at least one OnCalendar= setting will now be started only after timer-sync.target has been reached. This way they will not elapse before the system clock has been corrected by a local NTP client or similar. This is particular useful on RTC-less embedded machines, that come up with an invalid system clock.
  • systemd-nspawn's --network-veth= switch should now result in stable MAC addresses for both the outer and the inner side of the link.
  • systemd-nspawn gained a new --volatile= switch for running container instances with /etc or /var unpopulated.
  • The kdbus client code has been updated to use the new Linux 3.17 memfd subsystem instead of the old kdbus-specific one.
  • systemd-networkd's DHCP client and server now support FORCERENEW. There are also new configuration options to configure the vendor client identifier and broadcast mode for DHCP.
  • systemd will no longer inform the kernel about the current timezone, as this is necessarily incorrect and racy as the kernel has no understanding of DST and similar concepts. This hence means FAT timestamps will be always considered UTC, similar to what Android is already doing. Also, when the RTC is configured to the local time (rather than UTC) systemd will never synchronize back to it, as this might confuse Windows at a later boot.
  • systemd-analyze gained a new command "verify" for offline validation of unit files.
  • systemd-networkd gained support for a couple of additional settings for bonding networking setups. Also, the metric for statically configured routes may now be configured. For network interfaces where this is appropriate the peer IP address may now be configured.
  • systemd-networkd's DHCP client will no longer request broadcasting by default, as this tripped up some networks. For hardware where broadcast is required the feature should be switched back on using RequestBroadcast=yes.
  • systemd-networkd will now set up IPv4LL addresses (when enabled) even if DHCP is configured successfully.
  • udev will now default to respect network device names given by the kernel when the kernel indicates that these are predictable. This behavior can be tweaked by changing NamePolicy= in the relevant .link file.
  • A new library systemd-terminal has been added that implements full TTY stream parsing and rendering. This library is supposed to be used later on for implementing a full userspace VT subsystem, replacing the current kernel implementation.
  • A new tool systemd-journal-upload has been added to push journal data to a remote system running systemd-journal-remote.
  • journald will no longer forward all local data to another running syslog daemon. This change has been made because rsyslog (which appears to be the most commonly used syslog implementation these days) no longer makes use of this, and instead pulls the data out of the journal on its own. Since forwarding the messages to a non-existent syslog server is more expensive than we assumed we have now turned this off. If you run a syslog server that is not a recent rsyslog version, you have to turn this option on again (ForwardToSyslog= in journald.conf).
  • journald now optionally supports the LZ4 compressor for larger journal fields. This compressor should perform much better than XZ which was the previous default.
  • machinectl now shows the IP addresses of local containers, if it knows them, plus the interface name of the container.
  • A new tool "systemd-escape" has been added that makes it easy to escape strings to build unit names and similar.
  • sd_notify() messages may now include a new ERRNO= field which is parsed and collected by systemd and shown among the "systemctl status" output for a service.
  • A new component "systemd-firstboot" has been added that queries the most basic systemd information (timezone, hostname, root password) interactively on first boot. Alternatively it may also be used to provision these things offline on OS images installed into directories.
  • The default sysctl.d/ snippets will now set net.ipv4.conf.default.promote_secondaries=1 This has the benefit of no flushing secondary IP addresses when primary addresses are removed.

New in version 215 (July 4th, 2014)

  • A new tool systemd-sysusers has been added. This tool creates system users and groups in /etc/passwd and /etc/group, based on static declarative system user/group definitions in /usr/lib/sysusers.d/. This is useful to enable factory resets and volatile systems that boot up with an empty /etc directory, and thus need system users and groups created during early boot. systemd now also ships with two default sysusers.d/ files for the most basic users and groups systemd and the core operating system require.
  • A new tmpfiles snippet has been added that rebuilds the essential files in /etc on boot, should they be missing.
  • A directive for ensuring automatic clean-up of /var/cache/man/ has been removed from the default configuration. This line should now be shipped by the man implementation. The necessary change has been made to the man-db implementation. Note that you need to update your man implementation to one that ships this line, otherwise no automatic clean-up of /var/cache/man will take place.
  • A new condition ConditionNeedsUpdate= has been added that may conditionalize services to only run when /etc or /var are "older" than the vendor operating system resources in /usr. This is useful for reconstructing or updating /etc after an offline update of /usr or a factory reset, on the next reboot. Services that want to run once after such an update or reset should use this condition and order themselves before the new systemd-update-done.service, which will mark the two directories as fully updated. A number of service files have been added making use of this, to rebuild the udev hardware database, the journald message catalog and dynamic loader cache (ldconfig). The systemd-sysusers tool described above also makes use of this now. With this in place it is now possible to start up a minimal operating system with /etc empty cleanly. For more information on the concepts involved see this recent blog story: http://0pointer.de/blog/projects/stateless.html
  • A new system group "input" has been introduced, and all input device nodes get this group assigned. This is useful for system-level software to get access to input devices. It complements what is already done for "audio" and "video".
  • systemd-networkd learnt minimal DHCPv4 server support in addition to the existing DHCPv4 client support. It also learnt DHCPv6 client and IPv6 Router Solicitation client support. The DHCPv4 client gained support for static routes passed in from the server. Note that the [DHCPv4] section known in older systemd-networkd versions has been renamed to [DHCP] and is now also used by the DHCPv6 client. Existing .network files using settings of this section should be updated, though compatibility is maintained. Optionally, the client hostname may now be sent to the DHCP server.
  • networkd gained support for vxlan virtual networks as well as tun/tap and dummy devices.
  • networkd gained support for automatic allocation of address ranges for interfaces from a system-wide pool of addresses. This is useful for dynamically managing a large number of interfaces with a single network configuration file. In particular this is useful to easily assign appropriate IP addresses to the veth links of a large number of nspawn instances.
  • RPM macros for processing sysusers, sysctl and binfmt drop-in snippets at package installation time have been added.
  • The /etc/os-release file should now be placed in /usr/lib/os-release. The old location is automatically created as symlink. /usr/lib is the more appropriate location of this file, since it shall actually describe the vendor operating system shipped in /usr, and not the configuration stored in /etc.
  • .mount units gained a new boolean SloppyOptions= setting that maps to mount(8)'s -s option which enables permissive parsing of unknown mount options.
  • tmpfiles learnt a new "L+" directive which creates a symlink but (unlike "L") deletes a pre-existing file first, should it already exist and not already be the correct symlink. Similar, "b+", "c+" and "p+" directives have been added as well, which create block and character devices, as well as fifos in the filesystem, possibly removing any pre-existing files of different types.
  • For tmpfiles' "L", "L+", "C" and "C+" directives the final 'argument' field (which so far specified the source to symlink/copy the files from) is now optional. If omitted the same file os copied from /usr/share/factory/ suffixed by the full destination path. This is useful for populating /etc with essential files, by copying them from vendor defaults shipped in /usr/share/factory/etc.
  • A new command "systemctl preset-all" has been added that applies the service preset settings to all installed unit files. A new switch --preset-mode= has been added that controls whether only enable or only disable operations shall be executed.
  • A new command "systemctl is-system-running" has been added that allows checking the overall state of the system, for example whether it is fully up and running.
  • When the system boots up with an empty /etc, the equivalent to "systemctl preset-all" is executed during early boot, to make sure all default services are enabled after a factory reset.
  • systemd now contains a minimal preset file that enables the most basic services systemd ships by default.
  • Unit files' [Install] section gained a new DefaultInstance= field for defining the default instance to create if a template unit is enabled with no instance specified.
  • A new passive target cryptsetup-pre.target has been added that may be used by services that need to make they run and finish before the first LUKS cryptographic device is set up.
  • The /dev/loop-control and /dev/btrfs-control device nodes are now owned by the "disk" group by default, opening up access to this group.
  • systemd-coredump will now automatically generate a stack trace of all core dumps taking place on the system, based on elfutils' libdw library. This stack trace is logged to the journal.
  • systemd-coredump may now optionally store coredumps directly on disk (in /var/lib/systemd/coredump, possibly compressed), instead of storing them unconditionally in the journal. This mode is the new default. A new configuration file /etc/systemd/coredump.conf has been added to configure this and other parameters of systemd-coredump.
  • coredumpctl gained a new "info" verb to show details about a specific coredump. A new switch "-1" has also been added that makes sure to only show information about the most recent entry instead of all entries. Also, as the tool is generally useful now the "systemd-" prefix of the binary name has been removed. Distributions that want to maintain compatibility with the old name should add a symlink from the old name to the new name.
  • journald's SplitMode= now defaults to "uid". This makes sure that unprivileged users can access their own coredumps with coredumpctl without restrictions.
  • New kernel command line options "systemd.wants=" (for pulling an additional unit during boot), "systemd.mask=" (for masking a specific unit for the boot), and "systemd.debug-shell" (for enabling the debug shell on tty9) have been added. This is implemented in the new generator "systemd-debug-generator".
  • systemd-nspawn will now by default filter a couple of syscalls for containers, among them those required for kernel module loading, direct x86 IO port access, swap management, and kexec. Most importantly though open_by_handle_at() is now prohibited for containers, closing a hole similar to a recently discussed vulnerability in docker regarding access to files on file hierarchies the container should normally not have access to. Note that for nspawn we generally make no security claims anyway (and this is explicitly documented in the man page), so this is just a fix for one of the most obvious problems.
  • A new man page file-hierarchy(7) has been added that contains a minimized, modernized version of the file system layout systemd expects, similar in style to the FHS specification or hier(5). A new tool systemd-path(1) has been added to query many of these paths for the local machine and user.
  • Automatic time-based clean-up of $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR is no longer done. Since the directory now has a per-user size limit, and is cleaned on logout this appears unnecessary, in particular since this now brings the lifecycle of this directory closer in line with how IPC objects are handled.
  • systemd.pc now exports a number of additional directories, including $libdir (which is useful to identify the library path for the primary architecture of the system), and a couple of drop-in directories.
  • udev's predictable network interface names now use the dev_port sysfs attribute, introduced in linux 3.15 instead of dev_id to distinguish between ports of the same PCI function. dev_id should only be used for ports using the same HW address, hence the need for dev_port.
  • machined has been updated to export the OS version of a container (read from /etc/os-release and /usr/lib/os-release) on the bus. This is now shown in "machinectl status" for a machine.
  • A new service setting RestartForceExitStatus= has been added. If configured to a set of exit signals or process return values, the service will be restarted when the main daemon process exits with any of them, regardless of the Restart= setting.
  • systemctl's -H switch for connecting to remote systemd machines has been extended so that it may be used to directly connect to a specific container on the host. "systemctl -H root at foobar:waldi" will now connect as user "root" to host "foobar", and then proceed directly to the container named "waldi". Note that currently you have to authenticate as user "root" for this to work, as entering containers is a privileged operation.

New in version 213 (May 28th, 2014)

  • A new "systemd-timesyncd" daemon has been added for synchronizing the system clock across the network. It implements an SNTP client. In contrast to NTP implementations such as chrony or the NTP reference server this only implements a client side, and does not bother with the full NTP complexity, focusing only on querying time from one remote server and synchronizing the local clock to it. Unless you intend to serve NTP to networked clients or want to connect to local hardware clocks this simple NTP client should be more than appropriate for most installations. The daemon runs with minimal privileges, and has been hooked up with networkd to only operate when network connectivity is available. The daemon saves the current clock to disk every time a new NTP sync has been acquired, and uses this to possibly correct the system clock early at bootup, in order to accommodate for systems that lack an RTC such as the Raspberry Pi and embedded devices, and make sure that time monotonically progresses on these systems, even if it is not always correct. To make use of this daemon a new system user and group "systemd-timesync" needs to be created on installation of systemd.
  • The queue "seqnum" interface of libudev has been disabled, as it was generally incompatible with device namespacing as sequence numbers of devices go "missing" if the devices are part of a different namespace.
  • "systemctl list-timers" and "systemctl list-sockets" gained a --recursive switch for showing units of these types also for all local containers, similar in style to the already supported --recursive switch for "systemctl list-units".
  • A new RebootArgument= setting has been added for service units, which may be used to specify a kernel reboot argument to use when triggering reboots with StartLimitAction=.
  • A new FailureAction= setting has been added for service units which may be used to specify an operation to trigger when a service fails. This works similarly to StartLimitAction=, but unlike it controls what is done immediately rather than only after several attempts to restart the service in question.
  • hostnamed got updated to also expose the kernel name, release, and version on the bus. This is useful for executing commands like hostnamectl with the -H switch. systemd-analyze makes use of this to properly display details when running non-locally.
  • The bootchart tool can now show cgroup information in the graphs it generates.
  • The CFS CPU quota cgroup attribute is now exposed for services. The new CPUQuota= switch has been added for this which takes a percentage value. Setting this will have the result that a service may never get more CPU time than the specified percentage, even if the machine is otherwise idle.
  • systemd-networkd learned IPIP and SIT tunnel support.
  • LSB init scripts exposing a dependency on $network will now get a dependency on network-online.target rather than simply network.target. This should bring LSB handling closer to what it was on SysV systems.
  • A new fsck.repair= kernel option has been added to control how fsck shall deal with unclean file systems at boot.
  • The (.ini) configuration file parser will now silently ignore sections whose name begins with "X-". This may be used to maintain application-specific extension sections in unit files.
  • machined gained a new API to query the IP addresses of registered containers. "machinectl status" has been updated to show these addresses in its output.
  • A new call sd_uid_get_display() has been added to the sd-login APIs for querying the "primary" session of a user. The "primary" session of the user is elected from the user's sessions and generally a graphical session is preferred over a text one.
  • A minimal systemd-resolved daemon has been added. It currently simply acts as a companion to systemd-networkd and manages resolv.conf based on per-interface DNS configuration, possibly supplied via DHCP. In the long run we hope to extend this into a local DNSSEC enabled DNS and mDNS cache.
  • The systemd-networkd-wait-online tool is now enabled by default. It will delay network-online.target until a network connection has been configured. The tool primarily integrates with networkd, but will also make a best effort to make sense of network configuration performed in some other way.
  • Two new service options StartupCPUShares= and StartupBlockIOWeight= have been added that work similarly to CPUShares= and BlockIOWeight= however only apply during system startup. This is useful to prioritize certain services differently during bootup than during normal runtime.
  • hostnamed has been changed to prefer the statically configured hostname in /etc/hostname (unless set to 'localhost' or empty) over any dynamic one supplied by dhcp. With this change the rules for picking the hostname match more closely the rules of other configuration settings where the local administrator's configuration in /etc always overrides any other settings.

New in version 212 (March 26th, 2014)

  • When restoring the screen brightness at boot, stay away from the darkest setting or from the lowest 5% of the available range, depending on which is the larger value of both. This should effectively protect the user from rebooting into a black screen, should the brightness have been set to minimum by accident.
  • sd-login gained a new sd_machine_get_class() call to determine the class ("vm" or "container") of a machine registered with machined.
  • sd-login gained new calls sd_peer_get_{session,owner_uid,unit,user_unit,slice,machine_name}(), to query the identity of the peer of a local AF_UNIX connection. They operate similar to their sd_pid_get_xyz() counterparts.
  • PID 1 will now maintain a system-wide system state engine with the states "starting", "running", "degraded", "maintenance", "stopping". These states are bound to system startup, normal runtime, runtime with at least one failed service, rescue/emergency mode and system shutdown. This state is shown in the "systemctl status" output when no unit name is passed. It is useful to determine system state, in particularly when doing so for many systems or containers at once.
  • A new command "list-machines" has been added to "systemctl" that lists all local OS containers and shows their system state (see above), if systemd runs inside of them.
  • systemctl gained a new "-r" switch to recursively enumerate units on all local containers, when used with the "list-unit" command (which is the default one that is executed when no parameters are specified).
  • The GPT automatic partition discovery logic will now honour two GPT partition flags: one may be set on a partition to cause it to be mounted read-only, and the other may be set on a partition to ignore it during automatic discovery.
  • Two new GPT type UUIDs have been added for automatic root partition discovery, for 32bit and 64bit ARM. This is not particularly useful for discovering the root directory on these architectures during bare-metal boots (since UEFI is not common there), but still very useful to allow booting of ARM disk images in nspawn with the -i option.
  • MAC addresses of interfaces created with nspawn's --network-interface= switch will now be generated from the machine name, and thus be stable between multiple invocations of the container.
  • logind will now automatically remove all IPC objects owned by a user if she or he fully logs out. This makes sure that users who are logged out cannot continue to consume IPC resources. This covers SysV memory, semaphores and message queues as well as POSIX shared memory and message queues. Traditionally SysV and POSIX IPC had no life-cycle limits, with this functionality this is corrected. This may be turned off using the RemoveIPC= switch of logind.conf.
  • The systemd-machine-id-setup and tmpfiles tools gained a --root= switch to operate on a specific root directory, instead of /.
  • journald can now forward logged messages to the TTYs of all logged in users ("wall"). This is the default for all emergency messages now.
  • A new tool systemd-journal-remote has been added to stream journal log messages across the network.
  • /sys/fs/cgroup/ is now mounted read-only after all cgroup controller trees are mounted into it. Note that the directories mounted beneath it are not read-only. This is a security measure and is particularly useful because glibc actually includes a search logic to pick any tmpfs it can find to implement shm_open() if /dev/shm is not available (which it might very well be in namespaced setups).
  • machinectl gained a new "poweroff" command to cleanly power down a local OS container.
  • The PrivateDevices= unit file setting will now also drop the CAP_MKNOD capability from the capability bound set, and imply DevicePolicy=closed.
  • PrivateDevices=, PrivateNetwork= and PrivateTmp= is now used comprehensively on all long-running systemd services where this is appropriate.
  • systemd-udevd will now run in a disassociated mount namespace. To mount directories from udev rules make sure to pull in mount units via SYSTEMD_WANTS properties.
  • The kdbus support gained support for uploading policy into the kernel. sd-bus gained support for creating "monitoring" connections that can eavesdrop into all bus communication for debugging purposes.
  • Timestamps may now be specified in seconds since the UNIX epoch Jan 1st, 1970 by specifying "@" followed by the value in seconds.
  • Native tcpwrap support in systemd has been removed. tcpwrap is old code, not really maintained anymore and has serious shortcomings, and better options such as firewalls exist. For setups that require tcpwrap usage, please consider invoking your socket-activated service via tcpd, like on traditional inetd.
  • A new system.conf configuration option DefaultTimerAccuracySec= has been added that controls the default AccuracySec= setting of .timer units.
  • Timer units gained a new WakeSystem= switch. If enabled timers configured this way will cause the system to resume from system suspend (if the system supports that, which most do these days).
  • Timer units gained a new Persistent= switch. If enabled timers configured this way will save to disk when they have been last triggered. This information is then used on next reboot to possible execute overdue timer events, that couldn't take place because the system was powered off. This enables simple anacron-like behaviour for timer units.
  • systemctl's "list-timers" will now also list the time a timer unit was last triggered in addition to the next time it will be triggered.
  • systemd-networkd will now assign predictable IPv4LL addresses to its local interfaces.

New in version 211 (March 12th, 2014)

  • A new unit file setting RestrictAddressFamilies= has been added to restrict which socket address families unit processes gain access to. This takes address family names like "AF_INET" or "AF_UNIX", and is useful to minimize the attack surface of services via exotic protocol stacks. This is built on seccomp system call filters.
  • Two new unit file settings RuntimeDirectory= and RuntimeDirectoryMode= have been added that may be used to manage a per-daemon runtime directories below /run. This is an alternative for setting up directory permissions with tmpfiles snippets, and has the advantage that the runtime directory's lifetime is bound to the daemon runtime and that the daemon starts up with an empty directory each time. This is particularly useful when writing services that drop priviliges using the User= or Group= setting.
  • The DeviceAllow= unit setting now supports globbing for matching against device group names.
  • The systemd configuration file system.conf gained new settings DefaultCPUAccounting=, DefaultBlockIOAccounting=, DefaultMemoryAccounting= to globally turn on/off accounting for specific resources (cgroups) for all units. These settings may still be overridden individually in each unit though.
  • systemd-gpt-auto-generator is now able to discover /srv and root partitions in addition to /home and swap partitions. It also supports LUKS-encrypted partitions now. With this in place automatic discovery of partitions to mount following the Discoverable Partitions Specification (http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Specifications/DiscoverablePartitionsSpec) is now a lot more complete. This allows booting without /etc/fstab and without root= on the kernel command line on appropriately prepared systems.
  • systemd-nspawn gained a new --image= switch which allows booting up disk images and Linux installations on any block device that follow the Discoverable Partitions Specification (see above). This means that installations made with appropriately updated installers may now be started and deployed using container managers, completely unmodified. (We hope that libvirt-lxc will add support for this feature soon, too.)
  • systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-macvlan= setting to set up a private macvlan interface for the container. Similar, systemd-networkd gained a new Kind=macvlan setting in .netdev files.
  • systemd-networkd now supports configuring local addresses using IPv4LL.
  • A new tool systemd-network-wait-online has been added to synchronously wait for network connectivity using systemd-networkd.
  • The sd-bus.h bus API gained a new sd_bus_track object for tracking the life-cycle of bus peers. Note that sd-bus.h is still not a public API though (unless you specify --enable-kdbus on the configure command line, which however voids your warranty and you get no API stability guarantee).
  • The $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR runtime directories for each user are now individual tmpfs instances, which has the benefit of introducing separate pools for each user, with individual size limits, and thus making sure that unprivileged clients can no longer negatively impact the system or other users by filling up their $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR. A new logind.conf setting RuntimeDirectorySize= has been introduced that allows controlling the default size limit for all users. It defaults to 10% of the available physical memory. This is no replacement for quotas on tmpfs though (which the kernel still does not support), as /dev/shm and /tmp are still shared resources used by both the system and unprivileged users.
  • logind will now automatically turn off automatic suspending on laptop lid close when more than one display is connected. This was previously expected to be implemented individually in desktop environments (such as GNOME), however has been added to logind now, in order to fix a boot-time race where a desktop environment might not have been started yet and thus not been able to take an inhibitor lock at the time where logind already suspends the system due to a closed lid.
  • logind will now wait at least 30s after each system suspend/resume cycle, and 3min after system boot before suspending the system due to a closed laptop lid. This should give USB docking stations and similar enough time to be probed and configured after system resume and boot in order to then act as suspend blocker.
  • systemd-run gained a new --property= setting which allows initialization of resource control properties (and others) for the created scope or service unit. Example: "systemd-run --property=BlockIOWeight=10 updatedb" may be used to run updatedb at a low block IO scheduling weight.
  • systemd-run's --uid=, --gid=, --setenv=, --setenv= switches now also work in --scope mode.
  • When systemd is compiled with kdbus support, basic support for enforced policies is now in place. (Note that enabling kdbus still voids your warranty and no API compatibility promises are made.)

New in version 210 (February 25th, 2014)

  • systemd will now relabel /dev after loading the SMACK policy according to SMACK rules.
  • A new unit file option AppArmoreProfile= has been added to set the AppArmor profile for the processes of a unit.
  • A new condition check ConditionArchitecture= has been added to conditionalize units based on the system architecture, as reported by uname()'s "machine" field.
  • systemd-networkd now supports matching on the system virtualization, architecture, kernel command line, host name and machine ID.
  • logind is now a lot more aggressive when suspending the machine due to a closed laptop lid. Instead of acting only on the lid close action it will continuously watch the lid status and act on it. This is useful for laptops where the power button is on the outside of the chassis so that it can be reached without opening the lid (such as the Lenovo Yoga). On those machines logind will now immediately re-suspend the machine if the power button has been accidentally pressed while the laptop was suspended and in a backpack or similar.
  • logind will now watch SW_DOCK switches and inhibit reaction to the lid switch if it is pressed. This means that logind will not suspend the machine anymore if the lid is closed and the systemd is docked, if the laptop supports SW_DOCK notifications via the input layer. Note that ACPI docking stations do not generate this currently. Also note that this logic is usually not fully sufficient and Desktop Environments should take a lid switch inhibitor lock when an external display is connected, as systemd will not watch this on its own.
  • nspawn will now make use of the devices cgroup controller by default, and only permit creation of and access to the usual API device nodes like /dev/null or /dev/random, as well as access to (but not creation of) the pty devices.
  • We will now ship a default .network file for systemd-networkd that automatically configures DHCP for network interfaces created by nspawn's --network-veth or --network-bridge= switches.
  • systemd will now understand the usual M, K, G, T suffixes according to SI conventions (i.e. to the base 1000) when referring to throughput and hardware metrics. It will stay with IEC conventions (i.e. to the base 1024) for software metrics, according to what is customary according to Wikipedia. We explicitly document which base applies for each configuration option.
  • The DeviceAllow= setting in unit files now supports a syntax to whitelist an entire group of devices node majors at once, based on the /proc/devices listing. For example, with the string "char-pts" it is now possible to whitelist all current and future pseudo-TTYs at once.
  • sd-event learned a new "post" event source. Event sources of this type are triggered by the dispatching of any event source of a type that is not "post". This is useful for implementing clean-up and check event sources that are triggered by other work being done in the program.
  • systemd-networkd is no longer statically enabled, but uses the usual [Install] sections so that it can be enabled/disabled using systemctl. It still is enabled by default however.
  • When creating a veth interface pair with systemd-nspawn the host side will now be prefixed with "vb-" if --network-bridge= is used, and with "ve-" if --network-veth is used. This way it is easy to distinguish these cases on the host, for example to apply different configuration to them with systemd-networkd.
  • The compatibility libraries for libsystemd-journal.so, libsystem-id128.so, libsystemd-login.so and libsystemd-daemon.so do not make use of IFUNC anymore. Instead we now build libsystemd.so multiple times under these alternative names. This means that the footprint is drastically increased, but given that these are transitional compatibility libraries this shouldn't matter much. This change has been made necessary to support the ARM platform for these compatibility libraries, as the ARM toolchain isn't really at the same level as the toolchain for other architectures like x86 and does not support IFUNC. Please make sure to use --enable-compat-libs only during a transitional period!

New in version 209 (February 20th, 2014)

  • A new component "systemd-networkd" has been added that can be used to configure local network interfaces statically or via DHCP. It is capable of bringing up bridges, VLANs, and bonding. Currently, no hook-ups for interactive network configuration are provided. Use this for your initrd, container, embedded, or server setup if you need a simple, yet powerful, network configuration solution. This configuration subsystem is quite nifty, as it allows wildcard hotplug matching in interfaces. For example, with a single configuration snippet, you can configure that all Ethernet interfaces showing up are automatically added to a bridge, or similar. It supports link-sensing and more.
  • A new tool "systemd-socket-proxyd" has been added which can act as a bidirectional proxy for TCP sockets. This is useful for adding socket activation support to services that do not actually support socket activation, including virtual machines and the like.
  • Add a new tool to save/restore rfkill state on shutdown/boot.
  • Save/restore state of keyboard backlights in addition to display backlights on shutdown/boot.
  • udev learned a new SECLABEL{} construct to label device nodes with a specific security label when they appear. For now, only SECLABEL{selinux} is supported, but the syntax is prepared for additional security frameworks.
  • udev gained a new scheme to configure link-level attributes from files in /etc/systemd/network/*.link. These files can match against MAC address, device path, driver name and type, and will apply attributes like the naming policy, link speed, MTU, duplex settings, Wake-on-LAN settings, MAC address, MAC address assignment policy (randomized, ...).
  • When the User= switch is used in a unit file, also initialize $SHELL= based on the user database entry.
  • systemd no longer depends on libdbus. All communication is now done with sd-bus, systemd's low-level bus library implementation.
  • kdbus support has been added to PID 1 itself. When kdbus is enabled, this causes PID 1 to set up the system bus and enable support for a new ".busname" unit type that encapsulates bus name activation on kdbus. It works a little bit like ".socket" units, except for bus names. A new generator has been added that converts classic dbus1 service activation files automatically into native systemd .busname and .service units.
  • sd-bus: add a light-weight vtable implementation that allows defining objects on the bus with a simple static const vtable array of its methods, signals and properties.
  • systemd will not generate or install static dbus introspection data anymore to /usr/share/dbus-1/interfaces, as the precise format of these files is unclear, and nothing makes use of it.
  • A proxy daemon is now provided to proxy clients connecting via classic D-Bus AF_UNIX sockets to kdbus, to provide full compatibility with classic D-Bus.
  • A bus driver implementation has been added that supports the classic D-Bus bus driver calls on kdbus, also for compatibility purposes.
  • A new API "sd-event.h" has been added that implements a minimal event loop API built around epoll. It provides a couple of features that direct epoll usage is lacking: prioritization of events, scales to large numbers of timer events, per-event timer slack (accuracy), system-wide coalescing of timer events, exit handlers, watchdog supervision support using systemd's sd_notify() API, child process handling.
  • A new API "sd-rntl.h" has been added that provides an API around the route netlink interface of the kernel, similar in style to "sd-bus.h".
  • A new API "sd-dhcp-client.h" has been added that provides a small DHCPv4 client-side implementation. This is used by "systemd-networkd".
  • There is a new kernel command line option "systemd.restore_state=0|1". When set to "0", none of the systemd tools will restore saved runtime state to hardware devices. More specifically, the rfkill and backlight states are not restored.
  • The FsckPassNo= compatibility option in mount/service units has been removed. The fstab generator will now add the necessary dependencies automatically, and does not require PID1's support for that anymore.
  • journalctl gained a new switch, --list-boots, that lists recent boots with their times and boot IDs.
  • The various tools like systemctl, loginctl, timedatectl, busctl, systemd-run, ... have gained a new switch "-M" to connect to a specific, local OS container (as direct connection, without requiring SSH). This works on any container that is registered with machined, such as those created by libvirt-lxc or nspawn.
  • systemd-run and systemd-analyze also gained support for "-H" to connect to remote hosts via SSH. This is particularly useful for systemd-run because it enables queuing of jobs onto remote systems.
  • machinectl gained a new command "login" to open a getty login in any local container. This works with any container that is registered with machined (such as those created by libvirt-lxc or nspawn), and which runs systemd inside.
  • machinectl gained a new "reboot" command that may be used to trigger a reboot on a specific container that is registered with machined. This works on any container that runs an init system of some kind.
  • systemctl gained a new "list-timers" command to print a nice listing of installed timer units with the times they elapse next.
  • Alternative reboot() parameters may now be specified on the "systemctl reboot" command line and are passed to the reboot() system call.
  • systemctl gained a new --job-mode= switch to configure the mode to queue a job with. This is a more generic version of --fail, --irreversible, and --ignore-dependencies, which are still available but not advertised anymore.
  • /etc/systemd/system.conf gained new settings to configure various default timeouts of units, as well as the default start limit interval and burst. These may still be overridden within each Unit.
  • PID1 will now export on the bus profile data of the security policy upload process (such as the SELinux policy upload to the kernel).
  • journald: when forwarding logs to the console, include timestamps (following the setting in /sys/module/printk/parameters/time).
  • OnCalendar= in timer units now understands the special strings "yearly" and "annually". (Both are equivalent)
  • The accuracy of timer units is now configurable with the new AccuracySec= setting. It defaults to 1min.
  • A new dependency type JoinsNamespaceOf= has been added that allows running two services within the same /tmp and network namespace, if PrivateNetwork= or PrivateTmp= are used.
  • A new command "cat" has been added to systemctl. It outputs the original unit file of a unit, and concatenates the contents of additional "drop-in" unit file snippets, so that the full configuration is shown.
  • systemctl now supports globbing on the various "list-xyz" commands, like "list-units" or "list-sockets", as well as on those commands which take multiple unit names.
  • journalctl's --unit= switch gained support for globbing.
  • All systemd daemons now make use of the watchdog logic so that systemd automatically notices when they hang.
  • If the $container_ttys environment variable is set, getty-generator will automatically spawn a getty for each listed tty. This is useful for container managers to request login gettys to be spawned on as many ttys as needed.
  • %h, %s, %U specifier support is not available anymore when used in unit files for PID 1. This is because NSS calls are not safe from PID 1. They stay available for --user instances of systemd, and as special case for the root user.
  • loginctl gained a new "--no-legend" switch to turn off output of the legend text.
  • The "sd-login.h" API gained three new calls: sd_session_is_remote(), sd_session_get_remote_user(), sd_session_get_remote_host() to query information about remote sessions.
  • The udev hardware database now also carries vendor/product information of SDIO devices.
  • The "sd-daemon.h" API gained a new sd_watchdog_enabled() to determine whether watchdog notifications are requested by the system manager.
  • Socket-activated per-connection services now include a short description of the connection parameters in the description.
  • tmpfiles gained a new "--boot" option. When this is not used, only lines where the command character is not suffixed with "!" are executed. When this option is specified, those options are executed too. This partitions tmpfiles directives into those that can be safely executed at any time, and those which should be run only at boot (for example, a line that creates /run/nologin).
  • A new API "sd-resolve.h" has been added which provides a simple asynchronous wrapper around glibc NSS host name resolution calls, such as getaddrinfo(). In contrast to glibc's getaddrinfo_a(), it does not use signals. In contrast to most other asynchronous name resolution libraries, this one does not reimplement DNS, but reuses NSS, so that alternate host name resolution systems continue to work, such as mDNS, LDAP, etc. This API is based on libasyncns, but it has been cleaned up for inclusion in systemd.
  • The APIs "sd-journal.h", "sd-login.h", "sd-id128.h" are no longer found in individual libraries libsystemd-journal.so, libsystemd-login.so, libsystemd-id128.so. Instead, we have merged them into a single library, libsystemd.so, which provides all symbols. The reason for this is cyclic dependencies, as these libraries tend to use each other's symbols. So far, we've managed to workaround that by linking a copy of a good part of our code into each of these libraries again and again, which, however, makes certain things hard to do, like sharing static variables. Also, it substantially increases footprint. With this change, there is only one library for the basic APIs systemd provides. Also, "sd-bus.h", "sd-memfd.h", "sd-event.h", "sd-rtnl.h", "sd-resolve.h", "sd-utf8.h" are found in this library as well, however are subject to the --enable-kdbus switch (see below). Note that "sd-dhcp-client.h" and "sd-daemon.h" are not part of this library (the former because it only consumes, never provides, services of/to other APIs, and the latter because it is completely standalone). To make the transition easy from the separate libraries to the unified one, we provide the --enable-compat-libs compile-time switch which will generate stub libraries that are compatible with the old ones but redirect all calls to the new one.
  • All of the kdbus logic and the new APIs "sd-bus.h", "sd-memfd.h", "sd-event.h", "sd-rtnl.h", "sd-resolve.h", and "sd-utf8.h" are compile-time optional via the "--enable-kdbus" switch, and they are not compiled in by default. To make use of kdbus, you have to explicitly enable the switch. Note however, that neither the kernel nor the userspace API for all of this is considered stable yet. We want to maintain the freedom to still change the APIs for now. By specifying this build-time switch, you acknowledge that you are aware of the instability of the current APIs.
  • Also, note that while kdbus is pretty much complete, it lacks one thing: proper policy support. This means you can build a fully working system with all features; however, it will be highly insecure. Policy support will be added in one of the next releases, at the same time that we will declare the APIs stable.
  • When the kernel command-line argument "kdbus" is specified, systemd will automatically load the kdbus.ko kernel module. At this stage of development, it is only useful for testing kdbus and should not be used in production. Note: if "--enable-kdbus" is specified, and the kdbus.ko kernel module is available, and "kdbus" is added to the kernel command line, the entire system runs with kdbus instead of dbus-daemon, with the above mentioned problem of missing the system policy enforcement. Also a future version of kdbus.ko or a newer systemd will not be compatible with each other, and will unlikely be able to boot the machine if only one of them is updated.
  • systemctl gained a new "import-environment" command which uploads the caller's environment (or parts thereof) into the service manager so that it is inherited by services started by the manager. This is useful to upload variables like $DISPLAY into the user service manager.
  • A new PrivateDevices= switch has been added to service units which allows running a service with a namespaced /dev directory that does not contain any device nodes for physical devices. More specifically, it only includes devices such as /dev/null, /dev/urandom, and /dev/zero which are API entry points.
  • logind has been extended to support behaviour like VT switching on seats that do not support a VT. This makes multi-session available on seats that are not the first seat (seat0), and on systems where kernel support for VTs has been disabled at compile-time.
  • If a process holds a delay lock for system sleep or shutdown and fails to release it in time, we will now log its identity. This makes it easier to identify processes that cause slow suspends or power-offs.
  • When parsing /etc/crypttab, support for a new key-slot= option as supported by Debian is added. It allows indicating which LUKS slot to use on disk, speeding up key loading.
  • The sd_journald_sendv() API call has been checked and officially declared to be async-signal-safe so that it may be invoked from signal handlers for logging purposes.
  • Boot-time status output is now enabled automatically after a short timeout if boot does not progress, in order to give the user an indication what she or he is waiting for.
  • The boot-time output has been improved to show how much time remains until jobs expire.
  • The KillMode= switch in service units gained a new possible value "mixed". If set, and the unit is shut down, then the initial SIGTERM signal is sent only to the main daemon process, while the following SIGKILL signal is sent to all remaining processes of the service.
  • When a scope unit is registered, a new property "Controller" may be set. If set to a valid bus name, systemd will send a RequestStop() signal to this name when it would like to shut down the scope. This may be used to hook manager logic into the shutdown logic of scope units. Also, scope units may now be put in a special "abandoned" state, in which case the manager process which created them takes no further responsibilities for it.
  • When reading unit files, systemd will now verify the access mode of these files, and warn about certain suspicious combinations. This has been added to make it easier to track down packaging bugs where unit files are marked executable or world-writable.
  • systemd-nspawn gained a new "--setenv=" switch to set container-wide environment variables. The similar option in systemd-activate was renamed from "--environment=" to "--setenv=" for consistency.
  • systemd-nspawn has been updated to create a new kdbus domain for each container that is invoked, thus allowing each container to have its own set of system and user buses, independent of the host.
  • systemd-nspawn gained a new --drop-capability= switch to run the container with less capabilities than the default. Both --drop-capability= and --capability= now take the special string "all" for dropping or keeping all capabilities.
  • systemd-nspawn gained new switches for executing containers with specific SELinux labels set.
  • systemd-nspawn gained a new --quiet switch to not generate any additional output but the container's own console output.
  • systemd-nspawn gained a new --share-system switch to run a container without PID namespacing enabled.
  • systemd-nspawn gained a new --register= switch to control whether the container is registered with systemd-machined or not. This is useful for containers that do not run full OS images, but only specific apps.
  • systemd-nspawn gained a new --keep-unit which may be used when invoked as the only program from a service unit, and results in registration of the unit service itself in systemd-machined, instead of a newly opened scope unit.
  • systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-interface= switch for moving arbitrary interfaces to the container. The new --network-veth switch creates a virtual Ethernet connection between host and container. The new --network-bridge= switch then allows assigning the host side of this virtual Ethernet connection to a bridge device.
  • systemd-nspawn gained a new --personality= switch for setting the kernel personality for the container. This is useful when running a 32bit container on a 64bit host. A similar option Personality= is now also available in service units.
  • logind will now also track a "Desktop" identifier for each session which encodes the desktop environment of it. This is useful for desktop environments that want to identify multiple running sessions of itself easily.
  • A new SELinuxContext= setting for service units has been added that allows setting a specific SELinux execution context for a service.
  • Most systemd client tools will now honour $SYSTEMD_LESS for settings of the "less" pager. By default, these tools will override $LESS to allow certain operations to work, such as jump-to-the-end. With $SYSTEMD_LESS, it is possible to influence this logic.
  • systemd's "seccomp" hook-up has been changed to make use of the libseccomp library instead of using its own implementation. This has benefits for portability among other things.
  • For usage together with SystemCallFilter=, a new SystemCallErrorNumber= setting has been introduced that allows configuration of a system error number to return on filtered system calls, instead of immediately killing the process. Also, SystemCallArchitectures= has been added to limit access to system calls of a particular architecture (in order to turn off support for unused secondary architectures). There is also a global SystemCallArchitectures= setting in system.conf now to turn off support for non-native system calls system-wide.