GIT Changelog

New in version 2.2.1

December 18th, 2014
  • Ports:
  • Building on older MacOS X systems automatically sets the necessary NO_APPLE_COMMON_CRYPTO build-time option.
  • Building with NO_PTHREADS has been resurrected.
  • Compilation options have been updated a bit to better support the z/OS port.
  • UI, Workflows & Features:
  • "git archive" learned to filter what gets archived with a pathspec.
  • "git config --edit --global" starts from a skeletal per-user configuration file contents, instead of a total blank, when the user does not already have any global config. This immediately reduces the need to later ask "Have you forgotten to set core.user?", and we can add more to the template as we gain more experience.
  • "git stash list -p" used to be almost always a no-op because each stash entry is represented as a merge commit. It learned to show the difference between the base commit version and the working tree version, which is in line with what "git stash show" gives.
  • Sometimes users want to report a bug they experience on their repository, but they are not at liberty to share the contents of the repository. "fast-export" was taught an "--anonymize" option to replace blob contents, names of people, paths and log messages with bland and simple strings to help them.
  • "git difftool" learned an option to stop feeding paths to the diff backend when it exits with a non-zero status.
  • "git grep" learned to paint (or not paint) partial matches on context lines when showing "grep -C" output in color.
  • "log --date=iso" uses a slight variant of the ISO 8601 format that is more human readable. A new "--date=iso-strict" option gives datetime output that conforms more strictly.
  • The logic "git prune" uses is more resilient against various corner cases.
  • A broken reimplementation of Git could write an invalid index that records both stage #0 and higher-stage entries for the same path. We now notice and reject such an index, as there is no sensible fallback (we do not know if the broken tool wanted to resolve and forgot to remove the higher-stage entries, or if it wanted to unresolve and forgot to remove the stage #0 entry).
  • The temporary files "git mergetool" uses are renamed to avoid too many dots in them (e.g. a temporary file for "hello.c" used to be named e.g. "hello.BASE.4321.c" but now uses underscore instead, e.g. "hello_BASE_4321.c", to allow us to have multiple variants).
  • The temporary files "git mergetool" uses can be placed in a newly created temporary directory, instead of the current directory, by setting the mergetool.writeToTemp configuration variable.
  • "git mergetool" understands "--tool bc" now, as version 4 of BeyondCompare can be driven the same way as its version 3 and it feels awkward to say "--tool bc3" to run version 4.
  • The "pre-receive" and "post-receive" hooks are no longer required to consume their input fully (not following this requirement used to result in intermittent errors in "git push").
  • The pretty-format specifier "%d", which expands to " (tagname)" for a tagged commit, gained a cousin "%D" that just gives the "tagname" without frills.
  • "git push" learned "--signed" push, that allows a push (i.e. request to update the refs on the other side to point at a new history, together with the transmission of necessary objects) to be signed, so that it can be verified and audited, using the GPG signature of the person who pushed, that the tips of branches at a public repository really point the commits the pusher wanted to, without having to "trust" the server.
  • "git interpret-trailers" is a new filter to programmatically edit the tail end of the commit log messages, e.g. "Signed-off-by:".
  • "git help everyday" shows the "Everyday Git in 20 commands or so" document, whose contents have been updated to match more modern Git practice.
  • On the "git svn" front, work progresses to reduce memory consumption and to improve handling of mergeinfo.
  • Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.:
  • The API to manipulate the "refs" has been restructured to make it more transactional, with the eventual goal to allow all-or-none atomic updates and migrating the storage to something other than the traditional filesystem based one (e.g. databases).
  • The lockfile API and its users have been cleaned up.
  • We no longer attempt to keep track of individual dependencies to the header files in the build procedure, relying instead on automated dependency generation support from modern compilers.
  • In tests, we have been using NOT_{MINGW,CYGWIN} test prerequisites long before negated prerequisites e.g. !MINGW were invented. The former has been converted to the latter to avoid confusion.
  • Optimized looking up a remote's configuration in a repository with very many remotes defined.
  • There are cases where you lock and open to write a file, close it to show the updated contents to an external processes, and then have to update the file again while still holding the lock; now the lockfile API has support for such an access pattern.
  • The API to allocate the structure to keep track of commit decoration has been updated to make it less cumbersome to use.
  • An in-core caching layer to let us avoid reading the same configuration files several times has been added. A few commands have been converted to use this subsystem.
  • Various code paths have been cleaned up and simplified by using the "strbuf", "starts_with()", and "skip_prefix()" APIs more.
  • A few codepaths that died when large blobs that would not fit in core are involved in their operation have been taught to punt instead, by e.g. marking a too-large blob as not to be diffed.
  • A few more code paths in "commit" and "checkout" have been taught to repopulate the cache-tree in the index, to help speed up later "write-tree" (used in "commit") and "diff-index --cached" (used in "status").
  • A common programming mistake to assign the same short option name to two separate options is detected by the parse_options() API to help developers.
  • The code path to write out the packed-refs file has been optimized, which especially matters in a repository with a large number of refs.
  • The check to see if a ref $F can be created by making sure no existing ref has $F/ as its prefix has been optimized, which especially matters in a repository with a large number of existing refs.
  • "git fsck" was taught to check the contents of tag objects a bit more.
  • "git hash-object" was taught a "--literally" option to help debugging.
  • When running a required clean filter, we do not have to mmap the original before feeding the filter. Instead, stream the file contents directly to the filter and process its output.
  • The scripts in the test suite can be run with the "-x" option to show a shell-trace of each command they run.
  • The "run-command" API learned to manage the argv and environment arrays for child process, alleviating the need for the callers to allocate and deallocate them.
  • Some people use AsciiDoctor, instead of AsciiDoc, to format our documentation set; the documentation has been adjusted to be usable by both, as AsciiDoctor is pickier than AsciiDoc about its input mark-up.
  • Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
  • Fixes since v2.1:
  • Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.1 in the maintenance
  • track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
  • notes for details).
  • "git log --pretty/format=" with an empty format string did not mean the more obvious "No output whatsoever" but "Use default format", which was counterintuitive.
  • "git -c section.var command" and "git -c section.var= command" should pass the configuration value differently (the former should be a boolean true, the latter should be an empty string).
  • Applying a patch not generated by Git in a subdirectory used to check for whitespace breakage using the attributes of incorrect paths. Also whitespace checks were performed even for paths excluded via the "git apply --exclude=" mechanism.
  • "git bundle create" with a date-range specification was meant to exclude tags outside the range, but it didn't.
  • "git add x" where x used to be a directory and is now a symbolic link to a directory misbehaved.
  • The prompt script checked the $GIT_DIR/ref/stash file to see if there is a stash, which was a no-no.
  • Pack-protocol documentation had a minor typo.
  • "git checkout -m" did not switch to another branch while carrying the local changes forward when a path was deleted from the index.
  • "git daemon" (with NO_IPV6 build configuration) used to incorrectly use the hostname even when gethostbyname() reported that the given hostname is not found. (merge 107efbe rs/daemon-fixes later to maint).
  • With sufficiently long refnames, "git fast-import" could have overflowed an on-stack buffer.
  • After "pack-refs --prune" packed refs at the top-level, it failed to prune them.
  • Progress output from "git gc --auto" was visible in "git fetch -q".
  • We used to pass -1000 to poll(2), expecting it to also mean "no timeout", which should be spelled as -1.
  • "git rebase" documentation was unclear that it is required to specify on what the rebase is to be done when telling it to first check out . (merge 95c6826 so/rebase-doc later to maint).
  • "git push" over HTTP transport had an artificial limit on the number of refs that can be pushed, imposed by the command line length. (merge 26be19b jk/send-pack-many-refspecs later to maint).
  • When receiving an invalid pack stream that records the same object twice, multiple threads got confused due to a race. (merge ab791dd jk/index-pack-threading-races later to maint).
  • An attempt to remove the entire tree in the "git fast-import" input stream caused it to misbehave. (merge 2668d69 mb/fast-import-delete-root later to maint).
  • Reachability check (used in "git prune" and friends) did not add a detached HEAD as a starting point to traverse objects still in use. (merge c40fdd0 mk/reachable-protect-detached-head later to maint).
  • "git config --add section.var val" when section.var already has an empty-string value used to lose the empty-string value. (merge c1063be ta/config-add-to-empty-or-true-fix later to maint).
  • "git fsck" failed to report that it found corrupt objects via its exit status in some cases. (merge 30d1038 jk/fsck-exit-code-fix later to maint).
  • Use of the "--verbose" option used to break "git branch --merged". (merge 12994dd jk/maint-branch-verbose-merged later to maint).
  • Some MUAs mangle a line in a message that begins with "From " to ">From " when writing to a mailbox file, and feeding such an input to "git am" used to lose such a line. (merge 85de86a jk/mbox-from-line later to maint).
  • "rev-parse --verify --quiet $name" is meant to quietly exit with a non-zero status when $name is not a valid object name, but still gave error messages in some cases.
  • A handful of C source files have been updated to include "git-compat-util.h" as the first thing, to conform better to our coding guidelines. (merge 1c4b660 da/include-compat-util-first-in-c later to maint).
  • The t7004 test, which tried to run Git with small stack space, has been updated to use a bit larger stack to avoid false breakage on some platforms. (merge b9a1907 sk/tag-contains-wo-recursion later to maint).
  • A few documentation pages had example sections marked up not quite correctly, which passed AsciiDoc but failed with AsciiDoctor. (merge c30c43c bc/asciidoc-pretty-formats-fix later to maint). (merge f8a48af bc/asciidoc later to maint).
  • "gitweb" used deprecated CGI::startfrom, which was removed from CGI.pm as of 4.04; use CGI::start_from instead. (merge 4750f4b rm/gitweb-start-form later to maint).
  • Newer versions of 'meld' break the auto-detection we use to see if they are new enough to support the `--output` option. (merge b12d045 da/mergetool-meld later to maint).
  • "git pack-objects" forgot to disable the codepath to generate the object reachability bitmap when it needs to split the resulting pack. (merge 2113471 jk/pack-objects-no-bitmap-when-splitting later to maint).
  • The code to use cache-tree trusted the on-disk data too much and fell into an infinite loop upon seeing an incorrectly recorded index file. (merge 729dbbd jk/cache-tree-protect-from-broken-libgit2 later to maint).
  • "git fetch" into a repository where branch B was deleted earlier, back when it had reflog enabled, and then branch B/C is fetched into it without reflog enabled, which is arguably an unlikely corner case, unnecessarily failed. (merge aae828b jk/fetch-reflog-df-conflict later to maint).
  • "git log --first-parent -L..." used to crash. (merge a8787c5 tm/line-log-first-parent later to maint).

New in version 2.2.0 (November 27th, 2014)

  • Updates since v2.1:
  • Ports:
  • Building on older MacOS X systems automatically sets the necessary NO_APPLE_COMMON_CRYPTO build-time option.
  • Building with NO_PTHREADS has been resurrected.
  • Compilation options have been updated a bit to better support the z/OS port.
  • UI, Workflows & Features:
  • "git archive" learned to filter what gets archived with a pathspec.
  • "git config --edit --global" starts from a skeletal per-user configuration file contents, instead of a total blank, when the user does not already have any global config. This immediately reduces the need to later ask "Have you forgotten to set core.user?", and we can add more to the template as we gain more experience.
  • "git stash list -p" used to be almost always a no-op because each stash entry is represented as a merge commit. It learned to show the difference between the base commit version and the working tree version, which is in line with what "git stash show" gives.
  • Sometimes users want to report a bug they experience on their repository, but they are not at liberty to share the contents of the repository. "fast-export" was taught an "--anonymize" option to replace blob contents, names of people, paths and log messages with bland and simple strings to help them.
  • "git difftool" learned an option to stop feeding paths to the diff backend when it exits with a non-zero status.
  • "git grep" learned to paint (or not paint) partial matches on context lines when showing "grep -C" output in color.
  • "log --date=iso" uses a slight variant of the ISO 8601 format that is more human readable. A new "--date=iso-strict" option gives datetime output that conforms more strictly.
  • The logic "git prune" uses is more resilient against various corner cases.
  • A broken reimplementation of Git could write an invalid index that records both stage #0 and higher-stage entries for the same path. We now notice and reject such an index, as there is no sensible fallback (we do not know if the broken tool wanted to resolve and forgot to remove the higher-stage entries, or if it wanted to unresolve and forgot to remove the stage #0 entry).
  • The temporary files "git mergetool" uses are renamed to avoid too many dots in them (e.g. a temporary file for "hello.c" used to be named e.g. "hello.BASE.4321.c" but now uses underscore instead, e.g. "hello_BASE_4321.c", to allow us to have multiple variants).
  • The temporary files "git mergetool" uses can be placed in a newly created temporary directory, instead of the current directory, by setting the mergetool.writeToTemp configuration variable.
  • "git mergetool" understands "--tool bc" now, as version 4 of BeyondCompare can be driven the same way as its version 3 and it feels awkward to say "--tool bc3" to run version 4.
  • The "pre-receive" and "post-receive" hooks are no longer required to consume their input fully (not following this requirement used to result in intermittent errors in "git push").
  • The pretty-format specifier "%d", which expands to " (tagname)" for a tagged commit, gained a cousin "%D" that just gives the "tagname" without frills.
  • "git push" learned "--signed" push, that allows a push (i.e. request to update the refs on the other side to point at a new history, together with the transmission of necessary objects) to be signed, so that it can be verified and audited, using the GPG signature of the person who pushed, that the tips of branches at a public repository really point the commits the pusher wanted to, without having to "trust" the server.
  • "git interpret-trailers" is a new filter to programmatically edit the tail end of the commit log messages, e.g. "Signed-off-by:".
  • "git help everyday" shows the "Everyday Git in 20 commands or so" document, whose contents have been updated to match more modern Git practice.
  • On the "git svn" front, work progresses to reduce memory consumption and to improve handling of mergeinfo.
  • Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.:
  • The API to manipulate the "refs" has been restructured to make it more transactional, with the eventual goal to allow all-or-none atomic updates and migrating the storage to something other than the traditional filesystem based one (e.g. databases).
  • The lockfile API and its users have been cleaned up.
  • We no longer attempt to keep track of individual dependencies to the header files in the build procedure, relying instead on automated dependency generation support from modern compilers.
  • In tests, we have been using NOT_{MINGW,CYGWIN} test prerequisites long before negated prerequisites e.g. !MINGW were invented. The former has been converted to the latter to avoid confusion.
  • Optimized looking up a remote's configuration in a repository with very many remotes defined.
  • There are cases where you lock and open to write a file, close it to show the updated contents to an external processes, and then have to update the file again while still holding the lock; now the lockfile API has support for such an access pattern.
  • The API to allocate the structure to keep track of commit decoration has been updated to make it less cumbersome to use.
  • An in-core caching layer to let us avoid reading the same configuration files several times has been added. A few commands have been converted to use this subsystem.
  • Various code paths have been cleaned up and simplified by using the "strbuf", "starts_with()", and "skip_prefix()" APIs more.
  • A few codepaths that died when large blobs that would not fit in core are involved in their operation have been taught to punt instead, by e.g. marking a too-large blob as not to be diffed.
  • A few more code paths in "commit" and "checkout" have been taught to repopulate the cache-tree in the index, to help speed up later "write-tree" (used in "commit") and "diff-index --cached" (used in "status").
  • A common programming mistake to assign the same short option name to two separate options is detected by the parse_options() API to help developers.
  • The code path to write out the packed-refs file has been optimized, which especially matters in a repository with a large number of refs.
  • The check to see if a ref $F can be created by making sure no existing ref has $F/ as its prefix has been optimized, which especially matters in a repository with a large number of existing refs.
  • "git fsck" was taught to check the contents of tag objects a bit more.
  • "git hash-object" was taught a "--literally" option to help debugging.
  • When running a required clean filter, we do not have to mmap the original before feeding the filter. Instead, stream the file contents directly to the filter and process its output.
  • The scripts in the test suite can be run with the "-x" option to show a shell-trace of each command they run.
  • The "run-command" API learned to manage the argv and environment arrays for child process, alleviating the need for the callers to allocate and deallocate them.
  • Some people use AsciiDoctor, instead of AsciiDoc, to format our documentation set; the documentation has been adjusted to be usable by both, as AsciiDoctor is pickier than AsciiDoc about its input mark-up.
  • Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
  • Fixes since v2.1:
  • Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.1 in the maintenance track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases' notes for details).
  • "git log --pretty/format=" with an empty format string did not mean the more obvious "No output whatsoever" but "Use default format", which was counterintuitive.
  • "git -c section.var command" and "git -c section.var= command" should pass the configuration value differently (the former should be a boolean true, the latter should be an empty string).
  • Applying a patch not generated by Git in a subdirectory used to check for whitespace breakage using the attributes of incorrect paths. Also whitespace checks were performed even for paths excluded via the "git apply --exclude=" mechanism.
  • "git bundle create" with a date-range specification was meant to exclude tags outside the range, but it didn't.
  • "git add x" where x used to be a directory and is now a symbolic link to a directory misbehaved.
  • The prompt script checked the $GIT_DIR/ref/stash file to see if there is a stash, which was a no-no.
  • Pack-protocol documentation had a minor typo.
  • "git checkout -m" did not switch to another branch while carrying the local changes forward when a path was deleted from the index.
  • "git daemon" (with NO_IPV6 build configuration) used to incorrectly use the hostname even when gethostbyname() reported that the given hostname is not found. (merge 107efbe rs/daemon-fixes later to maint).
  • With sufficiently long refnames, "git fast-import" could have overflowed an on-stack buffer.
  • After "pack-refs --prune" packed refs at the top-level, it failed to prune them.
  • Progress output from "git gc --auto" was visible in "git fetch -q".
  • We used to pass -1000 to poll(2), expecting it to also mean "no timeout", which should be spelled as -1.
  • "git rebase" documentation was unclear that it is required to specify on what the rebase is to be done when telling it to first check out . (merge 95c6826 so/rebase-doc later to maint).
  • "git push" over HTTP transport had an artificial limit on the number of refs that can be pushed, imposed by the command line length. (merge 26be19b jk/send-pack-many-refspecs later to maint).
  • When receiving an invalid pack stream that records the same object twice, multiple threads got confused due to a race. (merge ab791dd jk/index-pack-threading-races later to maint).
  • An attempt to remove the entire tree in the "git fast-import" input stream caused it to misbehave. (merge 2668d69 mb/fast-import-delete-root later to maint).
  • Reachability check (used in "git prune" and friends) did not add a detached HEAD as a starting point to traverse objects still in use. (merge c40fdd0 mk/reachable-protect-detached-head later to maint).
  • "git config --add section.var val" when section.var already has an empty-string value used to lose the empty-string value. (merge c1063be ta/config-add-to-empty-or-true-fix later to maint).
  • "git fsck" failed to report that it found corrupt objects via its exit status in some cases. (merge 30d1038 jk/fsck-exit-code-fix later to maint).
  • Use of the "--verbose" option used to break "git branch --merged". (merge 12994dd jk/maint-branch-verbose-merged later to maint).
  • Some MUAs mangle a line in a message that begins with "From " to ">From " when writing to a mailbox file, and feeding such an input to "git am" used to lose such a line. (merge 85de86a jk/mbox-from-line later to maint).
  • "rev-parse --verify --quiet $name" is meant to quietly exit with a non-zero status when $name is not a valid object name, but still gave error messages in some cases.
  • A handful of C source files have been updated to include "git-compat-util.h" as the first thing, to conform better to our coding guidelines. (merge 1c4b660 da/include-compat-util-first-in-c later to maint).
  • The t7004 test, which tried to run Git with small stack space, has been updated to use a bit larger stack to avoid false breakage on some platforms. (merge b9a1907 sk/tag-contains-wo-recursion later to maint).
  • A few documentation pages had example sections marked up not quite correctly, which passed AsciiDoc but failed with AsciiDoctor. (merge c30c43c bc/asciidoc-pretty-formats-fix later to maint). (merge f8a48af bc/asciidoc later to maint).
  • "gitweb" used deprecated CGI::startfrom, which was removed from CGI.pm as of 4.04; use CGI::start_from instead. (merge 4750f4b rm/gitweb-start-form later to maint).
  • Newer versions of 'meld' break the auto-detection we use to see if they are new enough to support the `--output` option. (merge b12d045 da/mergetool-meld later to maint).
  • "git pack-objects" forgot to disable the codepath to generate the object reachability bitmap when it needs to split the resulting pack. (merge 2113471 jk/pack-objects-no-bitmap-when-splitting later to maint).
  • The code to use cache-tree trusted the on-disk data too much and fell into an infinite loop upon seeing an incorrectly recorded index file. (merge 729dbbd jk/cache-tree-protect-from-broken-libgit2 later to maint).
  • "git fetch" into a repository where branch B was deleted earlier, back when it had reflog enabled, and then branch B/C is fetched into it without reflog enabled, which is arguably an unlikely corner case, unnecessarily failed. (merge aae828b jk/fetch-reflog-df-conflict later to maint).
  • "git log --first-parent -L..." used to crash. (merge a8787c5 tm/line-log-first-parent later to maint).

New in version 2.2.0 RC1 (November 8th, 2014)

  • Updates since v2.1:
  • Ports:
  • Building on older MacOS X systems automatically sets the necessary NO_APPLE_COMMON_CRYPTO build-time option.
  • The support to build with NO_PTHREADS has been resurrected.
  • Compilation options has been updated a bit to support z/OS port better.
  • UI, Workflows & Features:
  • "git archive" learned to filter what gets archived with pathspec.
  • "git config --edit --global" starts from a skeletal per-user configuration file contents, instead of a total blank, when the user does not already have any. This immediately reduces the need for a later "Have you forgotten setting core.user?" and we can add more to the template as we gain more experience.
  • "git stash list -p" used to be almost always a no-op because each stash entry is represented as a merge commit. It learned to show the difference between the base commit version and the working tree version, which is in line with what "git show" gives.
  • Sometimes users want to report a bug they experience on their repository, but they are not at liberty to share the contents of the repository. "fast-export" was taught an "--anonymize" option to replace blob contents, names of people and paths and log messages with bland and simple strings to help them.
  • "git difftool" learned an option to stop feeding paths to the diff backend when it exits with a non-zero status.
  • "git grep" allows to paint (or not paint) partial matches on context lines when showing "grep -C" output in color.
  • "log --date=iso" uses a slight variant of ISO 8601 format that is made more human readable. A new "--date=iso-strict" option gives datetime output that is more strictly conformant.
  • The logic "git prune" uses is more resilient against various corner cases.
  • A broken reimplementation of Git could write an invalid index that records both stage #0 and higher stage entries for the same path. We now notice and reject such an index, as there is no sensible fallback (we do not know if the broken tool wanted to resolve and forgot to remove higher stage entries, or if it wanted to unresolve and forgot to remove the stage#0 entry).
  • The temporary files "git mergetool" uses are named to avoid too many dots in them (e.g. a temporary file for "hello.c" used to be named e.g. "hello.BASE.4321.c" but now uses underscore instead, e.g. "hello_BASE_4321.c").
  • The temporary files "git mergetools" uses can be placed in a newly created temporary directory, instead of the current directory, by setting the mergetool.writeToTemp configuration variable.
  • "git mergetool" understands "--tool bc" now, as version 4 of BeyondCompare can be driven the same way as its version 3 and it feels awkward to say "--tool bc3".
  • The "pre-receive" and "post-receive" hooks are no longer required to consume their input fully (not following this requirement used to result in intermittent errors in "git push").
  • The pretty-format specifier "%d", which expanded to " (tagname)" for a tagged commit, gained a cousin "%D" that just gives the "tagname" without frills.
  • "git push" learned "--signed" push, that allows a push (i.e. request to update the refs on the other side to point at a new history, together with the transmission of necessary objects) to be signed, so that it can be verified and audited, using the GPG signature of the person who pushed, that the tips of branches at a public repository really point the commits the pusher wanted to, without having to "trust" the server.
  • "git interpret-trailers" is a new filter to programmatically edit the tail end of the commit log messages.
  • "git help everyday" shows the "Everyday Git in 20 commands or so" document, whose contents have been updated to more modern Git practice.
  • On the "git svn" front, work to reduce memory consumption and to improve handling of mergeinfo progresses.
  • Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.:
  • The API to manipulate the "refs" has been restructured to make it more transactional, with the eventual goal to allow all-or-none atomic updates and migrating the storage to something other than the traditional filesystem based one (e.g. databases).
  • The lockfile API and its users have been cleaned up.
  • We no longer attempt to keep track of individual dependencies to the header files in the build procedure, relying on automated dependency generation support from modern compilers.
  • In tests, we have been using NOT_{MINGW,CYGWIN} test prerequisites long before negated prerequisites e.g. !MINGW were invented. The former has been converted to the latter to avoid confusion.
  • Looking up remotes configuration in a repository with very many remotes defined has been optimized.
  • There are cases where you lock and open to write a file, close it to show the updated contents to external processes, and then have to update the file again while still holding the lock, but the lockfile API lacked support for such an access pattern.
  • The API to allocate the structure to keep track of commit decoration has been updated to make it less cumbersome to use.
  • An in-core caching layer to let us avoid reading the same configuration files number of times has been added. A few commands have been converted to use this subsystem.
  • Various code paths have been cleaned up and simplified by using "strbuf", "starts_with()", and "skip_prefix()" APIs more.
  • A few codepaths that died when large blobs that would not fit in core are involved in their operation have been taught to punt instead, by e.g. marking too large a blob as not to be diffed.
  • A few more code paths in "commit" and "checkout" have been taught to repopulate the cache-tree in the index, to help speed up later "write-tree" (used in "commit") and "diff-index --cached" (used in "status").
  • A common programming mistake to assign the same short option name to two separate options is detected by parse_options() API to help developers.
  • The code path to write out the packed-refs file has been optimized, which especially matters in a repository with a large number of refs.
  • The check to see if a ref $F can be created by making sure no existing ref has $F/ as its prefix has been optimized, which especially matters in a repository with a large number of existing refs.
  • "git fsck" was taught to check contents of tag objects a bit more.
  • "git hash-object" was taught a "--literally" option to help debugging.
  • When running a required clean filter, we do not have to mmap the original before feeding the filter. Instead, stream the file contents directly to the filter and process its output.
  • The scripts in the test suite can be run with "-x" option to show a shell-trace of each command run in them.
  • The "run-command" API learned to manage the argv and environment array for child process, alleviating the need for the callers to allocate and deallocate them.
  • Some people use AsciiDoctor, instead of AsciiDoc, to format our documentation set; the documentation has been adjusted, as AsciiDoctor is pickier than AsciiDoc in its input mark-up.
  • Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
  • Fixes since v2.1:
  • Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.1 in the maintenance track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases' notes for details).
  • "git log --pretty/format=" with an empty format string did not mean the more obvious "No output whatsoever" but "Use default format", which was counterintuitive.
  • "git -c section.var command" and "git -c section.var= command" should pass the configuration differently (the former should be a boolean true, the latter should be an empty string).
  • Applying a patch not generated by Git in a subdirectory used to check the whitespace breakage using the attributes for incorrect paths. Also whitespace checks were performed even for paths excluded via "git apply --exclude=" mechanism.
  • "git bundle create" with date-range specification were meant to exclude tags outside the range, but it didn't.
  • "git add x" where x that used to be a directory has become a symbolic link to a directory misbehaved.
  • The prompt script checked $GIT_DIR/ref/stash file to see if there is a stash, which was a no-no.
  • Pack-protocol documentation had a minor typo.
  • "git checkout -m" did not switch to another branch while carrying the local changes forward when a path was deleted from the index.
  • "git daemon" (with NO_IPV6 build configuration) used to incorrectly use the hostname even when gethostbyname() reported that the given hostname is not found. (merge 107efbe rs/daemon-fixes later to maint).
  • With sufficiently long refnames, "git fast-import" could have overflown an on-stack buffer.
  • After "pack-refs --prune" packed refs at the top-level, it failed to prune them.
  • Progress output from "git gc --auto" was visible in "git fetch -q".
  • We used to pass -1000 to poll(2), expecting it to also mean "no timeout", which should be spelled as -1.
  • "git rebase" documentation was unclear that it is required to specify on what the rebase is to be done when telling it to first check out . (merge 95c6826 so/rebase-doc later to maint).
  • "git push" over HTTP transport had an artificial limit on number of refs that can be pushed imposed by the command line length. (merge 26be19b jk/send-pack-many-refspecs later to maint).
  • When receiving an invalid pack stream that records the same object twice, multiple threads got confused due to a race. (merge ab791dd jk/index-pack-threading-races later to maint).
  • An attempt to remove the entire tree in the "git fast-import" input stream caused it to misbehave. (merge 2668d69 mb/fast-import-delete-root later to maint).
  • Reachability check (used in "git prune" and friends) did not add a detached HEAD as a starting point to traverse objects still in use. (merge c40fdd0 mk/reachable-protect-detached-head later to maint).
  • "git config --add section.var val" used to lose existing section.var whose value was an empty string. (merge c1063be ta/config-add-to-empty-or-true-fix later to maint).
  • "git fsck" failed to report that it found corrupt objects via its exit status in some cases. (merge 30d1038 jk/fsck-exit-code-fix later to maint).
  • Use of "--verbose" option used to break "git branch --merged". (merge 12994dd jk/maint-branch-verbose-merged later to maint).
  • Some MUAs mangled a line in a message that begins with "From " to ">From " when writing to a mailbox file and feeding such an input to "git am" used to lose such a line. (merge 85de86a jk/mbox-from-line later to maint).
  • "rev-parse --verify --quiet $name" is meant to quietly exit with a non-zero status when $name is not a valid object name, but still gave error messages in some cases.
  • A handful of C source files have been updated to include "git-compat-util.h" as the first thing, to conform better to our coding guidelines. (merge 1c4b660 da/include-compat-util-first-in-c later to maint).
  • t7004 test, which tried to run Git with small stack space, has been updated to give a bit larger stack to avoid false breakage on some platforms. (merge b9a1907 sk/tag-contains-wo-recursion later to maint).
  • A few documentation pages had example sections marked up not quite correctly, which passed AsciiDoc but failed with AsciiDoctor. (merge c30c43c bc/asciidoc-pretty-formats-fix later to maint). (merge f8a48af bc/asciidoc later to maint).
  • "gitweb" used deprecated CGI::startfrom, which was removed from CGI.pm as of 4.04; use CGI::start_from instead. (merge 4750f4b rm/gitweb-start-form later to maint).
  • Newer versions of 'meld' breaks the auto-detection we use to see if they are new enough to support the `--output` option. (merge b12d045 da/mergetool-meld later to maint).
  • "git pack-objects" forgot to disable the codepath to generate object reachability bitmap when it needs to split the resulting pack. (merge 2113471 jk/pack-objects-no-bitmap-when-splitting later to maint).

New in version 2.1.3 (October 30th, 2014)

  • Some MUAs mangled a line in a message that begins with "From " to ">From " when writing to a mailbox file and feeding such an input to "git am" used to lose such a line.
  • "git daemon" (with NO_IPV6 build configuration) used to incorrectly use the hostname even when gethostbyname() reported that the given hostname is not found.
  • Newer versions of 'meld' breaks the auto-detection we use to see if they are new enough to support the `--output` option.
  • "git pack-objects" forgot to disable the codepath to generate object recheability bitmap when it needs to split the resulting pack.
  • "gitweb" used deprecated CGI::startfrom, which was removed from CGI.pm as of 4.04; use CGI::start_from instead.
  • "git log" documentation had an example section marked up not quite correctly, which passed AsciiDoc but failed with AsciiDoctor.
  • Also contains some documentation updates.

New in version 2.1.2 (October 1st, 2014)

  • "git push" over HTTP transport had an artificial limit on number of refs that can be pushed imposed by the command line length.
  • When receiving an invalid pack stream that records the same object twice, multiple threads got confused due to a race.
  • An attempt to remove the entire tree in the "git fast-import" input stream caused it to misbehave.
  • Reachability check (used in "git prune" and friends) did not add a detached HEAD as a starting point to traverse objects still in use.
  • "git config --add section.var val" used to lose existing section.var whose value was an empty string.
  • "git fsck" failed to report that it found corrupt objects via its exit status in some cases.

New in version 2.1.1 (September 20th, 2014)

  • Git 2.0 had a regression where "git fetch" into a shallowly cloned repository from a repository with bitmap object index enabled did not work correctly. This has been corrected.
  • Git 2.0 had a regression which broke (rarely used) "git diff-tree -t". This has been corrected.
  • "git log --pretty/format=" with an empty format string did not mean the more obvious "No output whatsoever" but "Use default format", which was counterintuitive. Now it means "nothing shown for the log message part".
  • "git -c section.var command" and "git -c section.var= command" should pass the configuration differently (the former should be a boolean true, the latter should be an empty string), but they didn't work that way. Now it does.
  • Applying a patch not generated by Git in a subdirectory used to check the whitespace breakage using the attributes for incorrect paths. Also whitespace checks were performed even for paths excluded via "git apply --exclude=" mechanism.
  • "git bundle create" with date-range specification were meant to exclude tags outside the range, but it did not work correctly.
  • "git add x" where x that used to be a directory has become a symbolic link to a directory misbehaved.
  • The prompt script checked $GIT_DIR/ref/stash file to see if there is a stash, which was a no-no.
  • "git checkout -m" did not switch to another branch while carrying the local changes forward when a path was deleted from the index.
  • With sufficiently long refnames, fast-import could have overflown an on-stack buffer. * After "pack-refs --prune" packed refs at the top-level, it failed to prune them.
  • "git gc --auto" triggered from "git fetch --quiet" was not quiet.

New in version 2.1.0 (August 16th, 2014)

  • Backward compatibility notes:
  • The default value we give to the environment variable LESS has been changed from "FRSX" to "FRX", losing "S" (chop long lines instead of wrapping). Existing users who prefer not to see line-wrapped output may want to set
  • $ git config core.pager "less -S"
  • to restore the traditional behaviour. It is expected that people find output from most subcommands easier to read with the new default, except for "blame" which tends to produce really long lines. To override the new default only for "git blame", you can do this
  • $ git config pager.blame "less -S"
  • A few disused directories in contrib/ have been retired.
  • Updates since v2.0:
  • UI, Workflows & Features:
  • Since the very beginning of Git, we gave the LESS environment a default value "FRSX" when we spawn "less" as the pager. "S" (chop long lines instead of wrapping) has been removed from this default set of options, because it is more or less a personal taste thing, as opposed to the others that have good justifications (i.e. "R" is very much justified because many kinds of output we produce are colored and "FX" is justified because output we produce is often shorter than a page). * The logic and data used to compute the display width needed for UTF-8 strings have been updated to match Unicode 7.0 better.
  • HTTP-based transports learned to better propagate the error messages from the webserver to the client coming over the HTTP transport.
  • The completion script for bash (in contrib/) has been updated to better handle aliases that define a complex sequence of commands.
  • The "core.preloadindex" configuration variable is enabled by default, allowing modern platforms to take advantage of their multiple cores.
  • "git clone" applies the "if cloning from a local disk, physically copy the repository using hardlinks, unless otherwise told not to with --no-local" optimization when the url.*.insteadOf mechanism rewrites a remote-repository "git clone $URL" into a clone from a local disk.
  • "git commit --date=" option learned more timestamp formats, including "--date=now".
  • The `core.commentChar` configuration variable is used to specify a custom comment character (other than the default "#") for the commit message editor. This can be set to `auto` to attempt to choose a different character that does not conflict with any that already starts a line in the message being edited, for cases like "git commit --amend".
  • "git format-patch" learned --signature-file= to add the contents of a file as a signature to the mail message it produces.
  • "git grep" learned the grep.fullname configuration variable to force "--full-name" to be the default. This may cause regressions for scripted users who do not expect this new behaviour.
  • "git imap-send" learned to ask the credential helper for auth material.
  • "git log" and friends now understand the value "auto" for the "log.decorate" configuration variable to enable the "--decorate" option automatically when the output is sent to tty.
  • "git merge" without an argument, even when there is an upstream defined for the current branch, refused to run until merge.defaultToUpstream is set to true. Flip the default of that configuration variable to true.
  • "git mergetool" learned to drive the vimdiff3 backend.
  • mergetool.prompt used to default to 'true', always asking "do you really want to run the tool on this path?". The default has been changed to 'false'. However, the prompt will still appear if mergetool used its autodetection system to guess which tool to use. Users who explicitly specify or configure a tool will no longer see the prompt by default. Strictly speaking, this is a backward incompatible change and users need to explicitly set the variable to 'true' if they want to be prompted to confirm running the tool on each path.
  • "git replace" learned the "--edit" subcommand to create a replacement by editing an existing object.
  • "git replace" learned a "--graft" option to rewrite the parents of a commit.
  • "git send-email" learned "--to-cover" and "--cc-cover" options, to tell it to copy To: and Cc: headers found in the first input file when emitting later input files.
  • "git svn" learned to cope with malformed timestamps with only one digit in the hour part, e.g. 2014-01-07T5:01:02.048176Z, emitted by some broken subversion server implementations.
  • "git tag" when editing the tag message shows the name of the tag being edited as a comment in the editor.
  • "git tag" learned to pay attention to "tag.sort" configuration, to be used as the default sort order when no --sort= option is given.
  • A new "git verify-commit" command, to check GPG signatures in signed commits, in a way similar to "git verify-tag" is used to check signed tags, was added.
  • Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.:
  • Build procedure for 'subtree' (in contrib/) has been cleaned up.
  • Support for the profile-feedback build, which has bit-rotted for quite a while, has been updated.
  • An experimental format to use two files (the base file and incremental changes relative to it) to represent the index has been introduced; this may reduce I/O cost of rewriting a large index when only small part of the working tree changes.
  • Effort to shrink the size of patches Windows folks maintain on top by upstreaming them continues. More tests that are not applicable to the Windows environment are identified and either skipped or made more portable.
  • Eradication of "test $condition -a $condition" from our scripts continues.
  • The `core.deltabasecachelimit` used to default to 16 MiB , but this proved to be too small, and has been bumped to 96 MiB.
  • "git blame" has been optimized greatly by reorganising the data structure that is used to keep track of the work to be done.
  • "git diff" that compares 3-or-more trees (e.g. parents and the result of a merge) has been optimized.
  • The API to update/delete references are being converted to handle updates to multiple references in a transactional way. As an example, "update-ref --stdin [-z]" has been updated to use this API.
  • skip_prefix() and strip_suffix() API functions are used a lot more widely throughout the codebase now.
  • Parts of the test scripts can be skipped by using a range notation, e.g. "sh t1234-test.sh --run='1-4 6 8-'" to omit test piece 5 and 7 and run everything else. Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
  • Fixes since v2.0:
  • We used to unconditionally disable the pager in the pager process we spawn to feed out output, but that prevented people who want to run "less" within "less" from doing so. (merge c0459ca je/pager-do-not-recurse later to maint).
  • Tools that read diagnostic output in our standard error stream do not want to see terminal control sequence (e.g. erase-to-eol). Detect them by checking if the standard error stream is connected to a tty. (merge 38de156 mn/sideband-no-ansi later to maint).
  • Mishandling of patterns in .gitignore that have trailing SPs quoted with backslashes (e.g. ones that end with "\ ") has been corrected. (merge 97c1364be6b pb/trim-trailing-spaces later to maint).
  • Reworded the error message given upon a failure to open an existing loose object file due to e.g. permission issues; it was reported as the object being corrupt, but that is not quite true. (merge d6c8a05 jk/report-fail-to-read-objects-better later to maint).
  • "git log -2master" is a common typo that shows two commits starting from whichever random branch that is not 'master' that happens to be checked out currently. (merge e3fa568 jc/revision-dash-count-parsing later to maint).
  • Code to avoid adding the same alternate object store twice was subtly broken for a long time, but nobody seems to have noticed. (merge 80b4785 rs/fix-alt-odb-path-comparison later to maint). (merge 539e750 ek/alt-odb-entry-fix later to maint).
  • The "%

New in version 2.0.4 (August 1st, 2014)

  • An earlier update to v2.0.2 broken output from "git diff-tree", which is fixed in this release.

New in version 2.0.2 (July 17th, 2014)

  • Documentation for "git submodule sync" forgot to say that the subcommand can take the "--recursive" option.
  • Mishandling of patterns in .gitignore that has trailing SPs quoted with backslashes (e.g. ones that end with "\ ") have been corrected.
  • Recent updates to "git repack" started to duplicate objects that are in packfiles marked with .keep flag into the new packfile by mistake.
  • "git clone -b brefs/tags/bar" would have mistakenly thought we were following a single tag, even though it was a name of the branch, because it incorrectly used strstr().
  • "%G" (nothing after G) is an invalid pretty format specifier, but the parser did not notice it as garbage.
  • Code to avoid adding the same alternate object store twice was subtly broken for a long time, but nobody seems to have noticed.
  • A handful of code paths had to read the commit object more than once when showing header fields that are usually not parsed. The internal data structure to keep track of the contents of the commit object has been updated to reduce the need for this double-reading, and to allow the caller find the length of the object.
  • During "git rebase --merge", a conflicted patch could not be skipped with "--skip" if the next one also conflicted.