django-restlib 1.0

Django REST API
django-restlib is a Django app that provides a set of classes and utilities for implementing class-based resources having support for various HTTP methods. The HTTP specification is followed as stringently as possible to ensure client applications can be written in a consistent way.

Define a Resource

A Resource class is defined for each static or dynamic resource on the server. The class provides a means of defining fine-grained expectations of that resource.

What does that mean?

Django has a notion of site-wide middleware that is applied for all requests and responses. This is obviously helpful in cases where the behavior across resources is the same. When dealing with web APIs, finer grain control over the resource may be required. Let's start with an example and break it down from there:

from restlib import http, resources
from blog.forms import PostForm

class PostResource(resources.ModelResource): # 1
 model = 'blog.Post' # 2

 def GET(self, request, pk): # 3

 post = self.get(request, pk=pk)
 if not post:
 return http.NOT_FOUND
 return post

 def PUT(self, request, pk): # 4

 post = self.get(request, pk=pk)
 if not post:
 return http.NOT_FOUND
 return post

 form = PostForm(request.data, instance=post)

 if form.is_valid():
 form.save()
 return http.NO_CONTENT # 5

 return http.CONFLICT, form.errors # 6


#1 is the class definition. In this case, a Django model is the resource being represented here, thus we use the ModelResource class which contains helper methods such as the queryset() and get().

#2 defines that actual model being represented. It can be the class itself or a string (as shown above) defining the app name and class name.

#3 defines our first supported HTTP method for this resource (resources are assumed to support only OPTIONS by default), therefore GET requests can be made to this resource. If GET is defined, HEAD will automatically be added to the resource.

#4 defines the second supported HTTP method for this resource. It uses a Django form to validate the sent data and to update the post instance.

#5 and #6 shows two variations for returning a custom status code. The first represents the status code for '204 No Content' which tells the client the PUT was successful, but no content will be returned to the client.

The second form returns a '409 Conflict' which includes a custom error message that will be sent as the content body of the response.

Publishing APIs

Resource classes can be hooked into Django's URLconfs the same way views are:

 urlpatterns = patterns('blog.api',
 url(r'^blog/(?P\d+)/$', 'PostResource', name='post-resource')
 )


Resource Middleware

Django has middleware that is applied site-wide across all resources (views) which is useful for applying common response headers, handling exceptions, etc.

RESTlib provides a way of defining middleware at the resource level. Certain resources may require special handling depending on the function it serves. The way to manage this currently with Django views is to decorate views with additional functionality, which includes things like @auth_required and @cache_page(60 * 60 * 24).

A simple middleware that will enable Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) can defined like this:

class CrossOriginResourceSharing(object):
 methods = ('OPTIONS',)

 preflight_headers = {
 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin': 'example.org' ,
 'Access-Control-Max-Age': '3600',
 'Access-Control-Allow-Methods': 'PUT',
 }

 def process_response(self, resource, request, response, **kwargs):
 for k, v in self.preflight_headers.iteritems():
 response[k.title()] = v


This middleware can be added to the list of middleware for a given resource:

class PostResource(resources.ModelResource):
 model = 'blog.Post'

 middleware = (
 ...
 'middleware.CrossOriginResourceSharing',
 ...
 )


When browsers make non-simple requests to resources of different origin, they typically perform a preflight request (using OPTIONS) to check if the pending request is allowed to be made. This middleware ensures a given resource is allowed to be accessed by clients located on the example.org domain for 1 hour at a time and for the non-simple method PUT.

last updated on:
October 25th, 2011, 17:13 GMT
price:
FREE!
developed by:
Byron Ruth
homepage:
github.com
license type:
BSD License 
category:
ROOT \ Internet \ Django Plugins

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