ccnmtldjango is a Paste Template that we use to replace the standard django-admin.py startproject command.
It does the same basic task of setting up a directory structure for a django app, but it has been extended to implement a lot of CCNMTL specific functionality and configuration.
What it provides for us that startproject doesn't:
- Django Wind (a Django bridge to Columbia's central auth service - http://www.jasig.org/cas/deployments/columbia-university) is included and configured by default so our apps can use WIND for auth automatically. Ie, anyone with a Columbia UNI by default will have an account. The CCNMTL developer UNIs are automatically set up as superusers, and the group affil that CCNMTL staff all have gets automatically mapped to staff. These are generally useful defaults for us.
- virtualenv and pip setup with source tarballs bundled and bootstrappable, manage.py's shebang set to use it. This basically fits it into our one-step automated deployment and containment approach.
- sorl.thumbnail (a handy dandy image thumbnailing library) is included by default
- flatpages enabled
- settings split for dev/prod
- apache/django.wsgi configured
- sample apache config for mod_wsgi setup using Virtual Environments (everything is streamlined so that we can just symlink the generated apache config file into our production server's /etc/apache/sites-enabled/ directory and it's good to go)
- media dirs for dev and prod configured
- smartif included (https://github.com/thraxil/django-smartif/tree/master)
- template_utils included (http://code.google.com/p/django-template-utils/) as well as feedparser, which it depends on for feed stuff
- django-typogrify included (http://code.google.com/p/typogrify/) along with smartypants.py (which it uses)
- django-sentry included (https://github.com/dcramer/django-sentry) and configured for our setup
- django-munin included (https://github.com/ccnmtl/django-munin)
- South is included for database migrations
- django-annoying is included (I like @render_to)
- django-nose installed and set up as test runner (much nicer!)
- sqlite in-memory database used for unit tests
- south tests automatically skipped on ./manage.py test (they break)
- django_compressor added and set up to compress css on production
- jquery (1.4.2, minified) included
- required CSS for the above js libraries is included in the site.css by default
- base templates included
- django admin enabled (and authenticated with WIND for tlc)
- markdown is included and enabled
- database defaulted to postgresql (cause MySQL is teh suck)
- transaction middleware enabled by default (cause data corruption is teh suck)
- timezone set
- I18n turned off (we are unfortunately monolingual. no sense in denying it)
- psycopg2 (stripped of its mx.DateTime dependency)
- a nice default template design with alternate base templates for multi-column layout.
To use ccnmtldjango, you need python 2.6+, virtualenv, pip, and a recent setuptools installed on your machine.
First, if you don't already have ccnmtldjango installed, do
It should automatically pull in the needed dependencies (just PasteScript, actually).
paster create --list-templates
should include ccnmtldjango
Now, to quickstart a django project, do
paster create --template=ccnmtldjango myprojectname
myprojectname should be a python module name (ie, lowercase, no punctuation, etc). It will create a directory called myprojectname that has a django project in it.
paster still doesn't do anything with file permissions, so we still need to manually set a couple:
chmod 755 manage.py bootstrap.py
I couldn't figure out a way to insert random strings into the code via Paste Template, so one thing that ccnmtldjango is missing compared to a regular django startproject is that the SECRET_KEY variable in settings_shared.py is always the same default. That's clearly not a good idea, so make sure you change that to some other random string that will be unique to your project.
This is probably a good point to check the project into version control.
We use containment for django too, with virtualenv:
That will create a ve directory which contains a virtualenv and has had all the libraries in the requirements/src directory installed into it (this includes django itself). The ve directory should never be checked into svn since it's generated. If you need other libraries for your application, bundle them up as tarballs and drop them in the requirements/src/ directory, add them to requirements/libs.txt or requirements/apps.txt (depending on whether they are regular python libraries or django apps) then re-run ./bootstrap.py.
Keep in mind that with virtualenv, there's no need to activate an environment. Instead, a ve has a bin directory which contains a python executable. If you use that instead of the system python executable, it uses the libraries in that virtualenv.
ccnmtldjango assumes that your project will use a postgresql database with the same name as your project. So, for our example, you would then do:
and it is all set to use it:
will install the tables that django needs for it's common apps (sites, sessions, admin, flatpages, etc) and have you create an admin user.
The ./manage.py syncdb automagically sets up an "example.com" site. This should be changed to your site domain (e.g. localhost:8000) via the admin console. http://localhost:8000/admin/sites/site/. (if it matters for your application)
Your application is ready to run now:
will start a server on http://localhost:8000/. Going there will give you a 404 since there's nothing in the application yet, but the admin app should be accessible (via the user account you created during syncdb, or via WIND to tlc users (or ones specified in the WIND_SUPERUSER_MAPPER_GROUPS list in settings_shared.py). So go ahead and login to http://localhost:8000/admin/
Even without any application specific code, flatpages is included so you can put content on the web right away.
From this point out, it's basic django development. You'll probably want to do a ./manage.py startapp to create your own application within the project and so on.
Setting up a fresh checkout
The first time you check out an existing ccnmtl-template project from svn/git:
./manage.py runserver < IP Address >:< PORT >
Differences from a standard Django install
Obviously, a bunch of libraries and such have been added and there's the whole virtualenv thing. There are also some differences from a standard django project (ie, the result of django-admin.py startproject) that you should be awayre of.
First, the settings have been split up to make dev and prod deployments easier to configure. A regular django install will have one settings.py file that contains all the settings. Django developers will usually copy that settings file and make changes when deploying to production. ccnmtldjango takes advantage of the fact that settings are just python code and can be imported and overridden. So we have a settings_shared.py which contains most of the settings. settings.py (which should be used for development) and settings_production.py then import everything from from settings_shared.py. settings_production.py then also overrides any settings that should be different in the production deployment (usually paths to templates and media files).
TransactionMiddleware is enabled by default. This means that each HTTP request gets a transaction that commits or rolls back at the end of the request. The default django setup for some reason does things "autocommit" style where each database operation runs in its own transaction, independent of the HTTP request.
The other big difference to be aware of is the top-level templates directory. Standard django procedure is to have a templates directory in each application in your project that contains the templates for that application. ccnmtldjango has the top-level templates directory for a couple reasons. First, since paster only creates the project level directory and not the application directories, it was the only way to have it include a default base.html, admin/login.html, registration/login.html and so on. I also just like the approach of having a project-level templates directory, especially for the base.html template. Django allows multiple template directories and searches through them in a predictable order, so you can (and probably should) still create application level template directories, list them in TEMPLATE_DIRS ahead of the project level one, and override whatever templates you want in those.
I18N is turned off since it's fairly rare that we do multi-lingual stuff and it's a performance hit to have it enabled if it's not being used. If you need to do a multi-lingual django site, just re-enable it and get to work.