GIT 2.4.0

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The world's most popular and fast version control system for Linux/UNIX systems.

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What's new in GIT 2.4.0:

  • Fixes since v2.3:
  • Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.3 in the maintenance track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases' notes for details). * "git blame HEAD -- missing" failed to correctly say "HEAD" when it tried to say "No such path 'missing' in HEAD". (merge a46442f jk/blame-commit-label later to maint). * "git rerere" (invoked internally from many mergy operations) did not correctly signal errors when it attempted to update the working tree files but failed for whatever reason. (merge 89ea903 jn/rerere-fail-on-auto-update-failure later to maint). * Setting diff.submodule to 'log' made "git format-patch" produce broken patches. (merge 339de50 dk/format-patch-ignore-diff-submodule later to maint). * After attempting and failing a password-less authentication (e.g., Kerberos), libcURL refuses to fall back to password-based Basic authentication without a bit of help/encouragement. (merge 4dbe664 bc/http-fallback-to-password-after-krb-fails later to maint). * The "git push" documentation for the "--repo=" option was easily misunderstood. (merge 57b92a7 mg/push-repo-option-doc later to maint). * Code to read a branch name from various files in the .git/ directory would have overrun array limits if asked to read an empty file. (merge 66ec904 jk/status-read-branch-name-fix later to maint). * Remove a superfluous conditional that is always true. (merge 94ee8e2 jk/remote-curl-an-array-in-struct-cannot-be-null later to maint). * The "git diff --raw" documentation incorrectly implied that C(opy) and R(ename) are the only statuses that can be followed by a score number. (merge ac1c2d9 jc/diff-format-doc later to maint). * A broken pack .idx file in the receiving repository prevented the dumb http transport from fetching a good copy of it from the other side. (merge 8b9c2dd jk/dumb-http-idx-fetch-fix later to maint). * The error message from "git commit", when a non-existing author name was given as value to the "--author=" parameter, has been reworded to avoid misunderstanding. (merge 1044b1f mg/commit-author-no-match-malformed-message later to maint). * "git log --help" used to show rev-list options that are irrelevant to the "log" command. (merge 3cab02d jc/doc-log-rev-list-options later to maint). * "git apply --whitespace=fix" used to under-allocate memory when the fix resulted in a longer text than the original patch. (merge 407a792 jc/apply-ws-fix-expands later to maint). * The interactive "show a list and let the user choose from it" interface used by "git add -i" unnecessarily prompted the user even when the candidate list was empty, against which the only "choice" the user could have made was to choose nothing. (merge a9c4641 ak/add-i-empty-candidates later to maint). * The todo list created by "git rebase -i" did not fully honor core.abbrev settings. (merge edb72d5 ks/rebase-i-abbrev later to maint). * "git fetch" over a remote-helper that cannot respond to the "list" command could not fetch from a symbolic reference (e.g., HEAD). (merge 33cae54 mh/deref-symref-over-helper-transport later to maint). * "git push --signed" gave an incorrectly worded error message when the other side did not support the capability. * The "git push --signed" protocol extension did not limit what the "nonce" (a server-chosen string) could contain nor how long it could be, which was unnecessarily lax. Limit both the length and the alphabet to a reasonably small space that can still have enough entropy. (merge afcb6ee jc/push-cert later to maint). * The completion script (in contrib/) clobbered the shell variable $x in the global shell namespace. (merge 852ff1c ma/bash-completion-leaking-x later to maint). * We incorrectly formatted a "uintmax_t" integer that doesn't fit in "int". (merge d306f3d jk/decimal-width-for-uintmax later to maint). * The configuration parser used to be confused when reading configuration from a blob object that ends with a lone CR. (merge 1d0655c jk/config-no-ungetc-eof later to maint). * The pack bitmap support did not build with older versions of GCC. (merge bd4e882 jk/pack-bitmap later to maint). * The documentation wasn't clear that "remote..pushURL" and "remote..URL" are there to name the same repository accessed via different transports, not two separate repositories. (merge 697f652 jc/remote-set-url-doc later to maint). * Older GnuPG implementations may not correctly import the keyring material we prepare for the tests to use. (merge 1f985d6 ch/new-gpg-drops-rfc-1991 later to maint). * The credential helper for Windows (in contrib/) used to mishandle user names that contain an at-sign. (merge 13d261e av/wincred-with-at-in-username-fix later to maint). * "diff-highlight" (in contrib/) used to show byte-by-byte differences, which could cause multi-byte characters to be chopped in the middle. It learned to pay attention to character boundaries (assuming UTF-8). (merge 8d00662 jk/colors later to maint). * Document longstanding configuration variable naming rules in CodingGuidelines. (merge 35840a3 jc/conf-var-doc later to maint). * An earlier workaround to squelch unhelpful deprecation warnings from the compiler on OS X unnecessarily set a minimum required version of the OS, which the user might want to raise (or lower) for other reasons. (merge 88c03eb es/squelch-openssl-warnings-on-macosx later to maint). * Certain older vintages of cURL give irregular output from "curl-config --vernum", which confused our build system. (merge 3af6792 tc/curl-vernum-output-broken-in-7.11 later to maint). * In v2.2.0, we broke "git prune" that runs in a repository that borrows from an alternate object store. (merge b0a4264 jk/prune-mtime later to maint). * "git submodule add" failed to squash "path/to/././submodule" to "path/to/submodule". (merge 8196e72 ps/submodule-sanitize-path-upon-add later to maint). * "git merge-file" did not work correctly when invoked in a subdirectory. (merge 204a8ff ab/merge-file-prefix later to maint). * "git blame" could die trying to free an uninitialized piece of memory. (merge e600592 es/blame-commit-info-fix later to maint). * "git fast-import" used to crash when it could not close and finalize the resulting packfile cleanly. (merge 5e915f3 jk/fast-import-die-nicely-fix later to maint). * "update-index --refresh" used to leak memory when an entry could not be refreshed for whatever reason. (merge bc1c2ca sb/plug-leak-in-make-cache-entry later to maint). * The "interpolated-path" option of "git daemon" inserted any string the client declared on the "host=" capability request without checking. Sanitize and limit %H and %CH to a saner and a valid DNS name. (merge b485373 jk/daemon-interpolate later to maint). * "git daemon" unnecessarily looked up the hostname even when "%CH" and "%IP" interpolations were not requested. (merge dc8edc8 rs/daemon-interpolate later to maint). * We relied on "--no-" prefix handling in Perl's Getopt::Long package, even though that support didn't exist in Perl 5.8 (which we still support). Manually add support to help people with older Getopt::Long packages. (merge f471494 km/send-email-getopt-long-workarounds later to maint). * "git apply" was not very careful about reading from, removing, updating and creating paths outside the working tree (under --index/--cached) or the current directory (when used as a replacement for GNU patch). (merge e0d201b jc/apply-beyond-symlink later to maint). * Correct a breakage in git-svn, introduced around the v2.2 era, that can cause FileHandles to be closed prematurely. (merge e426311 ew/svn-maint-fixes later to maint). * We did not parse usernames followed by literal IPv6 addresses correctly in SSH transport URLs; e.g., ssh://user@[2001:db8::1]:22/repo.git. (merge 6b6c5f7 tb/connect-ipv6-parse-fix later to maint). * The configuration variable 'mailinfo.scissors' was hard to discover in the documentation. (merge afb5de7 mm/am-c-doc later to maint). * The interaction between "git submodule update" and the submodule.*.update configuration was not clearly documented. (merge 5c31acf ms/submodule-update-config-doc later to maint). * "git diff --shortstat" used together with "--dirstat=changes" or "--dirstat=files" incorrectly output dirstat information twice. (merge ab27389 mk/diff-shortstat-dirstat-fix later to maint). * The manpage for "git remote add" mentioned "--tags" and "--no-tags" but did not explain what happens if neither option is provided. (merge aaba0ab mg/doc-remote-tags-or-not later to maint). * The description of "--exclude-standard option" in the output of "git grep -h" was phrased poorly. (merge 77fdb8a nd/grep-exclude-standard-help-fix later to maint). * "git rebase -i" recently started to include the number of commits in the todo list, but that output included extraneous whitespace on a platform that prepends leading whitespaces to its "wc -l" output. (merge 2185d3b es/rebase-i-count-todo later to maint). * The borrowed code in the kwset API did not follow our usual convention to use "unsigned char" to store values that range from 0-255. (merge 189c860 bw/kwset-use-unsigned later to maint). * A corrupt input to "git diff -M" used to cause it to segfault. (merge 4d6be03 jk/diffcore-rename-duplicate later to maint). * Certain builds of GPG triggered false breakages in a test. (merge 3f88c1b mg/verify-commit later to maint). * "git imap-send" learned to optionally talk with an IMAP server via libcURL. Because there is no other option when Git is built with the NO_OPENSSL option, use libcURL by default in that case. (merge dcd01ea km/imap-send-libcurl-options later to maint). * "git log --decorate" did not reset colors correctly around the branch names. (merge 5ee8758 jc/decorate-leaky-separator-color later to maint). * The code that reads from the ctags file in the completion script (in contrib/) did not spell ${param/pattern/string} substitution correctly, which happened to work with bash but not with zsh. (merge db8d750 js/completion-ctags-pattern-substitution-fix later to maint). * The transfer.hiderefs support did not quite work for smart-http transport. (merge 8ddf3ca jk/smart-http-hide-refs later to maint). * In the "git tag -h" output, move the documentation for the "--column" and "--sort" options to the "Tag listing options" section. (merge dd059c6 jk/tag-h-column-is-a-listing-option later to maint). * "git prune" used to largely ignore broken refs when deciding which objects are still being used, which could cause reference corruption to lead to object loss. (merge ea56c4e jk/prune-with-corrupt-refs later to maint). * The split-index mode introduced in v2.3.0-rc0~41 was broken in the codepath to protect us against a broken reimplementation of Git that writes an invalid index with duplicated index entries, etc. (merge 03f15a7 tg/fix-check-order-with-split-index later to maint). * "git fetch", when fetching a commit using the allow-tip-sha1-in-want extension, could have failed to fetch all of the requested refs. (merge 32d0462 jk/fetch-pack later to maint). * An failure early in the "git clone" that started creating the working tree and repository could have resulted in the failure to clean up some directories and files. (merge 16eff6c jk/cleanup-failed-clone later to maint). * Recommend format-patch and send-email for those who want to submit patches to this project. (merge b25c469 jc/submitting-patches-mention-send-email later to maint). * Do not spawn the pager when "git grep" is run with "--quiet". (merge c2048f0 ws/grep-quiet-no-pager later to maint). * The prompt script (in contrib/) did not show the untracked sign when working in a subdirectory without any untracked files. (merge 9bdc517 ct/prompt-untracked-fix later to maint). * An earlier update to the URL parser broke an address that contains a colon but an empty string for the port number, like ssh:// (merge 6b6c5f7 tb/connect-ipv6-parse-fix later to maint). * Code cleanups and documentation updates. (merge 2ce63e9 rs/simple-cleanups later to maint). (merge 33baa69 rj/no-xopen-source-for-cygwin later to maint). (merge 817d03e jc/diff-test-updates later to maint). (merge eb32c66 ak/t5516-typofix later to maint). (merge bcd57cb mr/doc-clean-f-f later to maint). (merge 0d6accc mg/doc-status-color-slot later to maint). (merge 53e53c7 sg/completion-remote later to maint). (merge 8fa7975 ak/git-done-help-cleanup later to maint). (merge 9a6f128 rs/deflate-init-cleanup later to maint). (merge 6f75d45 rs/use-isxdigit later to maint). (merge 376e4b3 jk/test-annoyances later to maint). (merge 7032054 nd/doc-git-index-version later to maint). (merge e869c5e tg/test-index-v4 later to maint). (merge 599d223 jk/simplify-csum-file-sha1fd-check later to maint). (merge 260d585 sg/completion-gitcomp-nl-for-refs later to maint). (merge 777c55a jc/report-path-error-to-dir later to maint). (merge fddfaf8 ph/push-doc-cas later to maint). (merge d50d31e ss/pull-rebase-preserve later to maint). (merge c8c3f1d pt/enter-repo-comment-fix later to maint). (merge d7bfb9e jz/gitweb-conf-doc-fix later to maint). (merge f907282 jk/cherry-pick-docfix later to maint). (merge d3c0811 iu/fix-parse-options-h-comment later to maint). (merge 6c3b2af jg/cguide-we-cannot-count later to maint). (merge 2b8bd44 jk/pack-corruption-post-mortem later to maint). (merge 9585cb8 jn/doc-fast-import-no-16-octopus-limit later to maint). (merge 5dcd1b1 ps/grep-help-all-callback-arg later to maint). (merge f1f4c84 va/fix-git-p4-tests later to maint).
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GPL (GNU General Public License) 
Junio C Hamano
4.4/5 62
ROOT \ Programming \ Version Control
1 GIT Screenshot:
GIT - Usage example of Git from the command-line
Git is one of the most widely used distributed version control systems, described by developers around the world as the number one VCS service. It runs only from terminal, but several front-ends are available for download.

It is a free and open source version control system application that can handle both large and small projects with maximum efficiency and speed. The program can be easily described as being small, fast and distributed.

Command-line options

The program comes with a handful of commands that can be easily remembered by anyone from the get-go. All the operations are performed locally, and has been engineered to work on the Linux kernel.

Included commands are add, bisect, branch, checkout, clone, commit, diff, fetch, grep, init, log, merge, mv, pull, push, rebase, reset, rm, show, status, and tag. You can easily learn what each command does by running the git --help command from a terminal window.

Features at a glance

When using Git, users will be able to add files, checkout branches or paths, clone repositories, create empty Git repos, join multiple development histories, display the working tree status, record changes, as well as to create, list or delete branches.

In addition, the application allows users to view changes between commits and working trees, print lines that match a pattern, view commit logs, download refs and objects, rename or move files, symlinks and directories, update remote refs, and remove files from a working tree.

Various graphical front-ends exist

Even if it’s a command-line only software, various graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are available, including git-cola, SmartGit, GitEye, giggle, and gitg. The project outclasses SCM (Software Configuration Management) utilities, such as CVS, Subversion, ClearCase, and Perforce, by having cheap local branching, multiple workflows, and convenient staging areas.

Bottom line

Summing up, Git is a free version control system that features lightning fast performance, it is easy to learn, and has a very small footprint. With Git you can do frictionless context switching, role-based code lines, feature based workflow, and disposable experimentation.

GIT was reviewed by , last updated on May 4th, 2015

#revision control #version control system #content tracker #VCS #versioning #revision #tracker

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