This latest version of Linux AMI saw the introduction of a new Linux kernel
The Amazon Linux AMI, a supported and maintained Linux image provided by Amazon Web Services for use on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), is now at version 2012.09.The Amazon Linux Machine Image is an environment for applications running on Amazon EC and it includes packages that enable easy integration with AWS.
Highlights of Amazon Linux AMI 2012.09:
• Linux kernel was updated to version 3.2.30, which follows the 3.2.x kernel series that we introduced in the 2012.03 AMI;
• Apache 2.4 and PHP 5.4 are both supported and they've been engineered to work together in specific combinations;
• OpenJDK 1.7 has been included in the package repositories, but OpenJDK 1.6 is still installed by default;
• R language has been added to the Amazon Linux AMI;
• Multiple versions of GCC have been implemented;
• CUDA toolkit 4.2.9 has been added and is available on the Cluster GPU AMI.
A complete list of changes can be found in the official announcement. More details about the Amazon Linux AMI can be found on Amazon's website.